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Videos uploaded by user “Jason Welker”
The relationship between the Current Account Balance and Exchange Rates
 
16:16
This lesson will illustrate how trade flows should lead to appreciation and depreciation of currencies in a floating exchange rate system, and then explain how in the case of China, central bank policy aimed at buying large quantities of US government debt keeps the supply of Chinese currency high in the US and the demand for US dollars high in China. This means the dollar remains stronger than it otherwise might relative to the Chinese RMB, contributing to the persistent trade deficits the US exhibits in its trade with China. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 112424 Jason Welker
Measuring GDP using the Income Approach and the Expenditure Approach - HD
 
14:02
GDP is generally understood to represent the health of a nation's economy, and most people realize that if GDP is growing, things are going well, while if it's falling things have turned sour in the economy. But what, precisely, does GDP measures? There are two primary methods for measuring GDP, which should yield the same result even though they measure completely different factors. -The income approach: measures the total incomes earned by households in a nation in a year. -The expenditure approach: measures the total amount spent on the goods produced by a country in a year. By examining the circular flow model of a nation's economy, we can demonstrate why every dollar earned by a household in a nation's resource market will ultimately be spent in the product market, or leaked through taxes, savings, and import spending, leading to injections in the form of government spending, investment and export sales. In the video lecture below, the two methods for measuring GDP are introduced, and the various components it includes are explained in detail. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 295083 Jason Welker
The Effects of a Per Unit Subsidy
 
10:22
This video lesson illustrates and explains the effects that a per unit subsidy will have on the market for a commodity, in this case, corn. The payment to producers from government lowers the marginal cost of production, increases supply and leads to lower prices for consumers and greater revenues for producers. However, subsidies are not always economically efficient, since as we will see, the cost to taxpayers may outweigh the benefit to producers and consumers, meaning a subsidy may result in a net loss of societal welfare. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 113008 Jason Welker
Real GDP and the GDP Deflator
 
11:26
A nation's GDP measure's the value of its output of goods and services in a particular period of time. Gross Domestic Product is expressed in dollar terms, which means that if the price of goods and services rise, a country's nominal GDP figure will increase. The problem with this is that an increase in the nominal (numerical) value of a country's output can increase when price levels rise, even if the actual level of output remains the same. For this reason, it is important to adjust a nation's nominal GDP for any changes in the price level that occur between two periods of time. Once nominal GDP is adjusted for inflation or deflation, we arrive at real GDP, which is a much more accurate measurement of the actual level of output in a nation, adjusting for any changes in prices. This lesson will define nominal and real GDP and use a numerical example to illustrate why measuring nominal GDP produces a false impression of the actual level of output a nation is producing from one year to the next. We will then use a simple formula to determine the GDP deflator, the price index that allows us to adjust nominal GDP to arrive at real GDP. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 160540 Jason Welker
Total and Marginal Utility
 
08:09
Utility in Economics is another word for "happiness". Most people would argue that more is always better. This lesson introduces and analyzes the relationship between the level of consumption of a particular good and the consumer's total and marginal utility derived from the good's consumption. We introduce the "law of diminishing marginal utility", which itself helps explain the Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 51112 Jason Welker
Scarcity, Opportunity Cost and the PPC
 
14:12
The basic economic problem is one rooted in both the natural world and in human greed. We live in a world of limited resources, but we seem to have unlimited wants. This results in scarcity, which gives rise to the very field of Economics, which deals with how to allocate scarce resources between the competing wants and needs of society. This lesson will introduce these basic economic concepts, along with the first (and perhaps the most useful) graph an Economics student will learn, the Production Possibilities Curve. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 199708 Jason Welker
An Introduction to Aggregate Demand
 
14:31
This lesson introduces the macroeconomic concept of Aggregate demand. AD is defined, and its components are explained individually, focusing on the factors that can lead to a change in the overall demand for a nation's goods and services in a particular period of time at a range of price levels. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 133385 Jason Welker
Monetary Policy: Introduction to the Money Market
 
09:48
This video lesson introduces the money market, a model essential to understanding the workings of monetary policy. The supply and demand for money are introduced, and the basic effect of monetary policies are modeled in the simple money market diagram. In later videos, the various tools available to monetary policy makers will be explained and evaluated using the money market model. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 80184 Jason Welker
Game Theory Intro - The Prisoner's Dilemma as a Model for Oligopoly Behavior
 
12:31
Two men are in custody for a crime they may or may not have committed: armed robbery. The police have the men in separate cells and have told them the following: Confess to the crime of armed robbery and we will let you off with a light term of three years in jail with parole after one year. Remain silent and we will throw everything we have at you, you will get 10 years in jail, because we promise you, your accomplice will talk. However, if you both remain silent, we have to let you go with a slap on the wrist, just six months in jail for trespassing. With this information in mind, the men, who are unable to communicate with one another both confess and get three years in jail. Why didn't they both remain silent, though, and get just six months in jail? This story is what's known as the Prisoner's Dilemma. It is a popular story used by economists to illustrate the challenges faced by non-collusive oligopolistic firms in deciding how to determine what prices to set for their products, whether to advertise or not to advertise, and many other strategic decisions that will affect the level of profits being earned. The oligopolistic market structure, more than any other, requires that firms act strategically, taking into account the decisions of their competitors, on whom they are highly inter-dependent. This lesson will apply the Prisoner's Dilemma game to two firms deciding whether to charge a high price or a low price for their output, and analyze the most likely outcome in such a game. As we will see, without the ability to collude with one another, the strategic behavior of oligopolistic firms tends to result in an outcome that is not optimal for the sellers, but may benefit consumers. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 108588 Jason Welker
The Business Cycle
 
09:21
The business cycle model is one often referred to in the media, which likes to use terms like "boom' and 'bust'. It is a model that can communicate several important pieces of information about a nation's economy. Basically, the business cycles is a graph which shows the level of real GDP over time. The vertical axis shows the level of GDP, and horizontal axis time. A typical nation's business cycle will most likely look like a wave, showing how GDP rises and falls over time. Assuming the country is achieving economic growth over the long-run, business cycle's 'line of best fit' or 'trend line' will slop upwards, indicating that over the span of years or decades, a nation's economy will produce more output. But over shorter periods of time, output may fluctuate, as the economy experiences those 'booms and busts' the media are so fond of. There are four fundamental phases in any nation's business cycle: 1) Expansion: Also known as the recovery phase, when the nation's output is rising at a rate faster than the long-run trend. 2) Peak: This is the end of a period of expansion, when output begins to decline 3) Contraction: Also known as the recession phase, when the nation's output is falling over time. 4)Trough: This is the end of a period of recession, when output begins to recover (the economy enters an expansion phase again). This video lesson will explore the four phases of a nation's business cycles and explain how the goal of macroeconomic policies is to 'smooth out' the fluctuations in the business cycle, and thereby reduce the amount of uncertainty faced by a nation's households and firms regarding the future level of economic activity. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 89188 Jason Welker
Introduction to Pure Monopoly
 
14:11
This lesson will introduce some of the characteristics of monopolies and use a demand schedule to derive the demand and marginal revenue curves for a hypothetical monopolistic airplane manufacturer. We will then place cost curves on the graph to determine the profit maximizing quantity a monopolist should produce at, and we'll briefly examine the level of output and price as it would compare to a perfectly competitive market. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 129260 Jason Welker
Introduction to Fiscal Policy - Expansionary vs. Contractionary Policies
 
15:29
This video lesson will introduce the use of fiscal policies by a government aimed at expanding or contracting the level of eocnomic activity in the nation. Changing the amount of government spanding and taxation can influence several macroeconomic variables, such as employment, price levels and the level of output. When should a government alter the level of taxes and spending it engages in? This lesson will introduce two circumstances under which fiscal policy may be used to promote the achievement of various macroeconomics objectives. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 102716 Jason Welker
First Degree Price Discrimination and its Effect on Efficiency in a Monopolistic Market
 
14:51
This lesson will define price discrimination, outline the conditions necessary for it to occur, and explain the different degrees of price discrimination. We will then illustrate the effect of perfect price discrimination and attempt to conclude whether or not it is good overall for society by looking at the effect it has on consumers and producers. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 102569 Jason Welker
Determining Absolute and Comparative Advantage
 
09:14
Why do nations stand to gain from trading with one another, and how should a nation determine the goods it should specialize in and which it should import? To answer these questions we must introduce some basic concepts of International Trade: absolute and comparative advantage. This lesson introduces these two concepts and uses a simple PPC model to determine how two countries should allocate their resources towards the production of a particular good to maximize the benefit they derive from trading with one another. In the next lesson we'll learn how to illustrate the potential gains from trade in the PPC diagram. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 54353 Jason Welker
The Gains from International Trade in the Demand and Supply model
 
09:46
International trade results in an increase in efficiency and total welfare among consumers and producer in the countries that participate in it. This is a thesis presented by advocates of free trade all the time. This lesson provides a simple illustration of the gains from trade experienced by an exporting and an importing nation, showing the increases in consumer and producer surplus and total welfare resulting from specialization based on comparative advantage. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 40623 Jason Welker
The Long-run Phillips Curve
 
10:45
In the second lesson on the Phillips Curve model we will further explore the relationship between unemployment and inflation in an economy, this time examining what happens in the long-run, or the flexible-wage period, following a change in aggregate demand in an economy. Will the tradeoff between inflation and unemployment exist even once wages and prices have had time to adjust to the level of demand for a nation's output? We will find that, in fact, as an economy self-corrects from changes to aggregate demand and output returns to its full employment level, the unemployment rate will always return to its natural rate, even as inflation rises and falls with demand in the economy. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 49287 Jason Welker
The Tools of Monetary Policy
 
16:30
This video lesson graphically presents the three tools Central Banks have at their disposal for managing the level of aggregate demand in the economy. Through increasing or decreasing the money supply, a central bank has influence over the interest rates in a nation, and therefore over the level of investment and consumption among firms and households. To accomplish this, three tools are employed: The reserve requirement, the open market purchase or sale of government bonds, and the discount rate. This lesson illustrates these three tools and explains the relative importance of each to monetary policy makers.
Views: 177347 Jason Welker
Balance of Payments - the Current Account
 
06:49
This lesson introduces the balance of payments and the components of the Current Account Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 16225 Jason Welker
The Circular Flow Model of a Market Economy
 
12:37
By this point in your course you may have learned the definition of a market: A place where buyers and sellers meet to engage in mutually beneficial exchanges. But what is a market economy? Two basic types of markets exist in any market economy: resource markets and product markets. The exchanges that take place in these markets benefit both the households and the firms that engage in exchanges. This lesson will introduce the circular flow of money, resources and goods and services in a market economy. We will examine how resources flow from households to firms, and goods and services from firms to households. We will also seek to explain why individuals are willing to engage in the exchanges that characterize the market system. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 313700 Jason Welker
Second Degree Price Discrimniation
 
11:06
When sellers charge different prices to different consumers based on the quantity bought, they are practicing second degree price discrimination. This video introduces the graphical analysis of and outlines the consequences of second degree price discrimniation Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 23276 Jason Welker
The "Shut-down Rule" - When should a firm shut down in the face of economic losses?
 
16:55
This lesson illustrates two situations in which a firm in a perfectly competitive market is earning economic losses. In one case, the losses are less than the firm's total fixed costs. In another, the firm's losses exceed its fixed costs, meaning the firm is better off shutting down. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 104776 Jason Welker
Protectionist Quotas
 
12:49
Quotas offer policymakers looking to protect domestic industries from foreign competition another tool to keep imports out. This lesson provides a graphical analysis of the impact of a protectionist quota and evaluates its effect on domestic and foreign stakeholders. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 28232 Jason Welker
From Short-run to Long-run in Perfect Competition
 
21:23
Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 222140 Jason Welker
Positive Externalities of Consumption as a Market Failure
 
10:51
Positive externalities of consumption arise whenever the benefit to society of a particular good exceed the benefits enjoyed by the individual consumers of the good. In other words, if the marginal social benefit exceeds the marginal private benefit, there is a positive externality of consumption. The free market will under-produce and consume such a good. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 32795 Jason Welker
Market Equilibrium, Disequilibrium and Allocative Efficiency
 
09:18
What does it mean for a market to be in "equilibrium"? This lesson puts demand and supply (introduced in previous lessons) together to determine what makes a market efficient or inefficient. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 25072 Jason Welker
Protectionist Tariffs
 
11:48
While Economists generally agree that free trade creates more winners than loser, policymakers don't always agree, and turn to protectionism to shelter domestic producers from foreign competition. A tariff is one form of protectionism employed around the world by governments to shelter domestic firms from cheap imports. This lesson examines the impact tariffs have on the market for an imported good and evaluates their effect on different stakeholders, including consumers, producer and the government. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 21966 Jason Welker
Minimum Wages in Monopsonistic Labor Markets
 
08:09
It's common knowledge that minimum wages create unemployment. But in this lesson you'll learn that when a minimum wage is imposed in a market in which a dominant employer sets the market wage rate, more workers may end up being employed at higher wages. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 5503 Jason Welker
Finding equilibrium price and quantity using linear demand and supply equations
 
06:41
This video lesson demonstrates how to find the equilibrium price and quantity for a product when given the demand and supply equations for the product.
Views: 99267 Jason Welker
Finding Equilibrium using Linear Demand and Supply Equations
 
05:28
Now that you've mastered demand and supply equations, it's time to put them together to determine the equilibrium price and quantity in a market! This less shows you how to solve for equilibrium price and quantity using linear demand and supply equations. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 43385 Jason Welker
Third Degree Price Discrimination
 
11:37
Firms that charge different prices to different consumers based on the consumer group's price elasticity of demand are practicing third degree price discrimination, a very common practice among firms with market power. This lesson introduces and provides a graphical analysis of third degree price discrimination Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 16523 Jason Welker
Determining the Effects of Price Ceilings and Price Floors
 
12:04
This video lesson will explore two types of government intervention in the markets for particular goods and services: price ceilings and price floors. We will examine who, exactly these interventions are intended to help, and look at the net effect they will have on resource allocation and overall welfare in a particular market. We will examine the market for Butter in Europe and the market for Petrol in China. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 38551 Jason Welker
The Law of Diminishing Marginal Returns in a Toy Truck Factory
 
13:36
The law of diminishing returns is a simple, yet fundamental concept in economics. When the producer of a good wishes to expand its output, in the short-run it may do so by employing more workers or having its existing workers work longer hours. To acquire more capital and technology or to build new factories takes time and money, thus we say that in the short-run, a firm's plant size is fixed; the only variable resource is labor. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 101167 Jason Welker
Introduction to Exchange Rates and Forex Markets
 
12:38
Different countries have different currencies, and understanding how their values are determined is fundamental to understanding how trade between nations takes place. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 40523 Jason Welker
J-Curve and the Marshall-Lerner Condition
 
09:30
This video lesson is part two of a lesson on the Marshall-Lerner Condition and the J-curve. It will explain how a depreciation of a nation's currency is likely to affect the nation's current account balance in the short-run and in the long-run depending on the price elasticity of demand for exports and imports. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 46671 Jason Welker
The Law of Increasing Opportunity Cost and the PPC Model
 
12:28
In a previous lesson we introduced the basic economic concepts of scarcity, opportunity cost, and the production possibilities curve (PPC). In that lesson, we examined the tradeoffs an individual faces in the use of her time between "work" and "play". We showed that the opportunity cost of one hour of work is always the one hour of play that the individual could have enjoyed instead. The constant opportunitiy cost between work and play is illustrated in the PPC model as a straight line production possibilities curve. In this lesson, we will expand our understanding of the PPC and opportunity costs by examining the tradeoff a nation faces between the production of two goods using its scarce resources. Cars and pizzas require very different resources to produce, and therefore, as the production of one good increases, the opportunity cost of its production in terms of the other good increases. The result is a PPC that is bowed outwards from the origin. When choosing between the production of two goods, the more similar the resources needed to produce each good, the straighter the PPC will be. The less similar the resources needed to produce each good, the further the PPC will be bowed out from the origin. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 102470 Jason Welker
Calculating the Effects of a Specific, Indirect Tax
 
11:28
This video lesson is for IB Higher Level students or anyone else learning about linear demand and supply equations. We will apply linear equations to calculate the exact impact of an excise tax on cigarettes, determining the new equilibrium price and quantity, and calculating the amount of tax paid by consumers and by producers. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 38272 Jason Welker
The Kinked Demand Curve Model of Oligopoly Pricing
 
14:06
In our previous lesson on oligopoly, we showed how payoff matrices and game theory could be used to analyze the strategic, interdependent behavior of two firms when deciding the price they would charge. In this lesson we take a graphical approach to oligopoly, and seek to explain why prices tend not to fluctuate up or down in oligopolistic markets. We will look at two firms, Swisscom and Orange, which provide cell service to customers in Switzerland. Why does Swisscom have very little incentive to decrease its prices, and also a strong incentive not to raise its prices? The answer requires us to make assumptions about how the competitor, Orange, would respond to a change in Swisscom's prices. What emerges is a kinked demand curve, highly elastic at prices above the current equilibrium and highly inelastic at prices below the current equilibrium. Along with this kinked demand curve comes a kinked marginal revenue curve, with a vertical section. The implication is that even as an oligopolist's costs rise and fall in the short-run, its level of output and price tends to remain stable. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 49335 Jason Welker
Scarcity, the Basic Economic Problem
 
06:46
What would you do if you showed up to class and there weren't nearly enough chairs to go around? Well, you're facing and economic problem that requires an economic system to solve! This lesson introduces the basic economic problem of scarcity and defines "Economics" and "Economic systems", both key concepts for a student starting out on his or her journey to study the "dismal science"! Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 68655 Jason Welker
Calculating a Consumer Price Index (CPI)
 
04:21
What is the CPI and how is it determined? In this video we'll demonstrate how to calculate a really simple CPI using data for prices of consumer goods over three years. More resources for Economics students and teachers at http://econclassroom.com
Views: 16037 Jason Welker
The Effects of a Per Unit Tax - Inelastic Demand
 
12:41
This video lesson explains how a specific excise tax will affect the equilibrium price and quantity in the market for cigarettes. We will also explain how the tax burden is shared by both producers and consumers, and the portion of the tax born by consumers depends on the elasticity of demand for the product. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 53087 Jason Welker
Monopolistic Competition
 
20:31
Having now studied perfect competition and Pure Monopoly, we will now step back towards the competitive end of the spectrum of market structures and examine monopolistic competition. A monopolistically competitive market is one with many small firms each selling differentiated products. The entry barriers are low, but firms do have some price making power. Since each firm's output is slightly different from each other firm's, the individual sellers will face a downward sloping demand curve, much like a monopolist. But since entry barriers are low, the chance of an individual firm earning economic profits in the long-run is small. This lesson will introduce the characteristics of monopolistic competition and provide a detailed graphical analysis of an individual firm in a monopolistically competitive market. We will look at the market for restaurants, which shows may of the characteristics of the market structure. In the end we will determine whether monopolistically competitive markets are efficient by examining the firm's average total cost and its marginal cost compared to the price in the long-run equilibrium. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 247756 Jason Welker
Linear Demand Equations  - part 1(NEW 2016)
 
10:28
This is an update to the 2012 version of the lesson introducing how to determine an equation for demand using price and quantity data from a demand schedule or a demand curve. In parts 2 and 3 of this lesson we'll examine how changes in price and the non-price determinants of demand will lead to movements along a demand curve or a change in the 'a' and 'b' variables and a shift in demand. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 71403 Jason Welker
Measuring the Macroeconomic Objectives: Economic Growth, Unemployment and Inflation
 
15:56
Macroeconomics provides government policymakers with a set of tools that can be employed to help achieve certain macroeconomic objectives deemed desirable for a nation. For an economy to be considered healthy, three objectives must be met: -Economic growth: defined as an increase in the nation's output of goods and services over time -Low unemployment: meaning that nearly everyone who is willing and able to work should be able to find a job, and -Low inflation: meaning that the average price level of the nation's goods and services should not increase too rapidly over time. Measuring these three objectives requires the use of some simple mathematical formulas. Once they are known, we can use the basic production possibilities curve diagram to illustrate their effect on a nation's potential output and its current equilibrium level of output. This lesson will define the three macroeconomic objectives, show how it can be determined whether or not they are being achieved, and use a PPC model to illustrate them. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 64606 Jason Welker
Demand, Marginal Revenue and Profit Maximization for a Perfect Competitor
 
17:04
This video explains how an individual firm in a perfectly competitive market should decide the best quantity to produce to maximize profits. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 95826 Jason Welker
Calculating the area of Deadweight Loss (welfare loss) in a Linear Demand and Supply model
 
07:37
Once you've learned how to calculate the areas of consumer and producer surplus on a graph when the market is in equilibrium, the next question is how so we determine the loss of total welfare when a market is out of equilibrium. This lesson shows how to find the changes in CS and PS when the price is not at the free market equilibrium and thereby determine how much welfare loss arises from a disequilibrium. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 18118 Jason Welker
Introduction to Supply-side Policies
 
15:27
This lesson will introduce some of the market-oriented and interventionist supply-side macroeconomic policies a government may implement to promote the accomplishment of objectives such as full employment, economic growth and price level stability. Supply side policies contrast with demand-side fiscal and monetary policies, which are aimed at stimulating or contracting the level of spending in an economy. Supply-side policies, on the other hand, are meant to stimulate production among the nation's firms by either reducing the costs faced by firms through deregulation and labor market reforms or by improving the productivity of the human and physical capital available to producers. If successful, supply-side policies will stimulate job creation and economic growth, allowing output and employment to increase while maintaining a stable price level in the economy. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 22007 Jason Welker
Relationships between a Firm's Short-run Costs of Production
 
09:35
This lesson focuses on just the per-unit cost curves, their shapes, and the relationships between them. As you will see, the marginal cost curve, itself shaped by the law of diminishing returns, intersects the average cost curves at their lowest points, which as we will see in later lessons enables producers to choose a level of output at which their per unit production costs are minimized, enabling firms to make decisions that allow them to optimize their output for profit-maximization. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 51660 Jason Welker
An Introduction to Aggregate Supply
 
24:48
The Aggregate Supply curve is one of the more complicated concepts in Macroeconomics. This video explains the theories behind the short-run and the long-run AS curves, and shows how a nation's economy will respond to a change in aggregate demand in both the fixed-wage and the flexible-wage periods. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 137721 Jason Welker
Long-run Average Total Cost and Economies of Scale
 
17:41
This lesson distinguishes between a firm's short-run average total cost and its long-run average total cost, and explains how economies of scale may help a firm achieve lower average costs as it increases its output in the long-run. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 55259 Jason Welker
Positive Externalities of Production as a Market Failure
 
12:43
Sometimes the production of a good creates external benefits for a third party, but not often! Businesses do not want to externalize benefits, because this means they aren't making MONEY from their goods and services! However, sometimes positive production externalities arise. This lesson will explain these situations, give examples, and introduce some of the possible government solutions. Want to learn more about economics, or just be ready for an upcoming quiz, test or end of year exam? Jason Welker is available for tutoring, IB internal assessment and extended essay support, and other services to support economics students and teachers. Learn more here! http://econclassroom.com/?page_id=5870
Views: 39350 Jason Welker

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