This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:
00:02:43 1 Definition
00:02:52 1.1 Basic definition
00:05:47 1.2 Recent advances
00:09:58 1.3 Rocks, ores, and gems
00:12:08 1.4 Nomenclature and classification
00:15:11 2 Chemistry
00:22:21 3 Physical properties
00:23:17 3.1 Crystal structure and habit
00:29:26 3.2 Hardness
00:30:21 3.3 Lustre and diaphaneity
00:31:58 3.4 Colour and streak
00:34:43 3.5 Cleavage, parting, fracture, and tenacity
00:38:36 3.6 Specific gravity
00:40:20 3.7 Other properties
00:42:32 4 Classification
00:44:40 4.1 Silicates
00:47:03 4.1.1 Tectosilicates
00:50:33 4.1.2 Phyllosilicates
00:53:01 4.1.3 Inosilicates
00:55:41 4.1.4 Cyclosilicates
00:57:07 4.1.5 Sorosilicates
00:58:24 4.1.6 Orthosilicates
01:01:06 4.2 Non-silicates
01:01:14 4.2.1 Native elements
01:02:39 4.2.2 Sulfides
01:04:07 4.2.3 Oxides
01:05:58 4.2.4 Halides
01:06:47 4.2.5 Carbonates
01:08:49 4.2.6 Sulfates
01:10:20 4.2.7 Phosphates
01:11:26 4.2.8 Organic minerals
01:12:04 5 Astrobiology
01:13:06 6 See also
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"The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing."
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes. A mineral has one specific chemical composition, whereas a rock can be an aggregate of different minerals or mineraloids. The study of minerals is called mineralogy.
Minerals are classified by variety, species, series and group, in order of increasing generality. As of November 2018, there are more than 5,500 known mineral species; 5,389 of these have been approved by the International Mineralogical Association (IMA).Minerals are distinguished by various chemical and physical properties. Differences in chemical composition and crystal structure distinguish the various species, which were determined by the mineral's geological environment when formed. Changes in the temperature, pressure, or bulk composition of a rock mass cause changes in its minerals. Within a mineral species there may be variation in physical properties or minor amounts of impurities that are recognized by mineralogists or wider society as a mineral variety, for example amethyst, a purple variety of the mineral species quartz.
Minerals can be described by their various physical properties, which are related to their chemical structure and composition. Common distinguishing characteristics include crystal structure and habit, hardness, lustre, diaphaneity, colour, streak, tenacity, cleavage, fracture, parting, specific gravity, magnetism, taste or smell, radioactivity, and reaction to acid.
Minerals are classified by key chemical constituents; the two dominant systems are the Dana classification and the Strunz classification. Silicon and oxygen constitute approximately 75% of the Earth's crust, which translates directly into the predominance of silicate minerals. The silicate minerals compose over 90% of the Earth's crust. The silicate class of minerals is subdivided into six subclasses by the degree of polymerization in the chemical structure. All silicate minerals have a base unit of a [SiO4]4− silica tetrahedron—that is, a silicon cation coordinated by four oxygen anions, which gives the shape of a tetrahedron. These tetrahedra can be polymerized to give the subclasses: orthosilicates (no polymerization, thus single tetrahedra), disilicates (two tetrahedra bonded together), cyclosilicates (rings of tetrahedra), inosilicates (chains of tetrahedra), phyllosilicates (sheets of tetrahedra), and tectosilicates (three-dimensional network of tetrahedra). Other important mineral groups include the native elements, sulfides, oxides, halides, carbonates, sulfates, and phosphates.