A mini lessons for AS Biology Students. This relates to the AQA Specification, Unit 2: Variety of Living Organisms. Covered in this lesson: -Structure of the leaf -Structure and function of the stomata -Exchange in the leaf As ever, we're using the Toole & Toole AQA AS Biology textbook Enjoy!
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In this video, we look at how gases are exchanged in plants. First we look at the different parts of a plant's leaf and how they are involved in gas exchange. We then look at how plants lose water vapour and how stomata can close to reduce this.
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Useful for CBSE, ICSE, NCERT & International Students Grade : 10 Subject :Biology Lesson : Life process respiration Topic: Gas Exchange in Plants Gas Exchange in Plants. In order to carry on photosynthesis, green plants need a supply of carbon dioxide and a means of disposing of oxygen. In order to carry on cellular respiration, plant cells need oxygen and a means of disposing of carbon. Visit www.oztern.com to find personalized test preparation solutions for Pre Medical - AIPMT, AIIMS, JIPMER, State, Pre Engineering - IIT JEE, JEE MAIN, BITSAT, State and Foundations - Class 6 to 10.
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Revision notes and practice question for gas exchange: https://www.tes.com/teaching-resource/gas-exchange-11804216 Follow me on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/sciencesauce_online/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/science_sauce Facebook: https://facebook.com/sciencesauceonline/ The alveoli ("many alveoli", "one alveolus") are the sites of gas exchange in the lungs. They are tiny air sacks sometimes described as being cauliflower-shaped. Oxygen diffuses across the lining of the alveoli and blood capillaries into and into red blood cells. Carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood to the alveoli. A concentration gradient is maintained by breathing as well as blood flow. The main adaptation of the gas exchange surface are: 1. Large surface area 2. Thin wall 3. Moist lining 4. Good blood supply 5. Good ventilation
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Plants make food through photosynthesis. Using their leaves, plants combine sunlight, carbon dioxide and water to make glucose and oxygen. A leaf is like a plant's food factory, collecting all of the components into one place so that photosynthesis can happen. Let's start with sunlight. The top of a leaf is exposed to the most sunlight, and so the cells specialised for trapping light are on top of the leaf. These specialised cells are called palisade mesophyll cells. They are packed full of chlorophyll - the green chemical that plants used to absorb light. Most leaves have a large surface area so that they can trap as much sunlight as possible. Moving onto carbon dioxide. This is where the bottom of the leaf comes in. There are little pores on the bottom of the leaf called stomata. The stomata open up so that carbon dioxide can diffuse into the leaf. The stomata are controlled by 'sausage shaped' guard cells, which open up to let carbon dioxide in. The guard cells can also close the stomata, to stop other things inside the leaf, like water, from escaping. The carbon dioxide comes in from the stomata, and then makes its way up through the leaf, through the gaps in the spongy mesophyll layer in the bottom part of the leaf and heads up to the palisade cells where photosynthesis occurs. Leaves are thin so that the carbon dioxide doesn't have too far to travel. The final reactant needed for photosynthesis is water. Water comes into the plant through the roots, moves up the stem and enters the leaf through the vascular bundle. The vascular bundle contains a hollow tube specifically for water movement called the xylem. The veins on a leaf are actually the vascular bundle, allowing water to be spread out through the leaf. The leaves palisade cells now have sunlight, carbon dioxide and water. They are ready to photosynthesis to make glucose and oxygen. How do leaves manage to let in the wanted things (like water and carbon dioxide) but prevent unwanted things like bacteria getting in and also prevent the reactants from escaping before being used? At the top and bottom of the leaf are epidermis cells. These produce a protective waxy cuticle layer. The waxy cuticle seals up the leaf so that the only way in and out are through the stomata, which are regulated by the guard cells. So from top to bottom, a leaf's structure: - Waxy cuticle and epidermis cells - Palisade cells (where photosynthesis occurs) - Spongy mesophyll (with vascular bundle running through for water transport) - Epidermis and cuticle, with stomata and guard cells spread throughout (allowing carbon dioxide in). At Fuse School, teachers and animators come together to make fun & easy-to-understand videos in Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Maths & ICT. Our OER are available free of charge to anyone. Make sure to subscribe - we are going to create 3000 more! Be sure to follow our social media for the latest videos and information! Twitter: https://twitter.com/fuseschool Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/fuseschool Google+: http://www.gplus.to/FuseSchool Youtube: http://www.youtube.com/virtualschooluk Email: [email protected] Website: www.fuseschool.org This video is distributed under a Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs CC BY-NC-ND
Views: 349071 FuseSchool - Global Education
In this video we help your learn the process of respiration in plants. Like us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TheCineKids Like us on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/cinecurry Follow us on Twitter https://twitter.com/cinecurrytweets
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Our content consists of the entire 10th standard syllabus in a fun learning method with various sounds and animations. It is as per the current syllabus and helps explain each chapter in detail. This makes the learning very easy and entertaining. Visit us: https://goo.gl/HtmKZt About Home Revise: Home Revise provides the content of CBSE / State Board syllabus in a digital, multimedia form which makes study easy, interesting, enjoyable & memorable. #StudyHasBecomeEasyNow #Biology #Education Subscribe to Home Revise: https://www.youtube.com/user/homerevise1 Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/homerevise21 Follow us on Linked in: https://www.linkedin.com/company/home-revise-education-pvt.ltd
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Breathing In (Inhalation) When you breathe in, or inhale, your diaphragm contracts (tightens) and moves downward. This increases the space in your chest cavity, into which your lungs expand. The intercostal muscles between your ribs also help enlarge the chest cavity. They contract to pull your rib cage both upward and outward when you inhale. As your lungs expand, air is sucked in through your nose or mouth. The air travels down your windpipe and into your lungs. After passing through your bronchial tubes, the air finally reaches and enters the alveoli (air sacs). Through the very thin walls of the alveoli, oxygen from the air passes to the surrounding capillaries (blood vessels). A red blood cell protein called hemoglobin (HEE-muh-glow-bin) helps move oxygen from the air sacs to the blood. At the same time, carbon dioxide moves from the capillaries into the air sacs. The gas has traveled in the bloodstream from the right side of the heart through the pulmonary artery. Oxygen-rich blood from the lungs is carried through a network of capillaries to the pulmonary vein. This vein delivers the oxygen-rich blood to the left side of the heart. The left side of the heart pumps the blood to the rest of the body. There, the oxygen in the blood moves from blood vessels into surrounding tissues. Breathing Out (Exhalation) When you breathe out, or exhale, your diaphragm relaxes and moves upward into the chest cavity. The intercostal muscles between the ribs also relax to reduce the space in the chest cavity. As the space in the chest cavity gets smaller, air rich in carbon dioxide is forced out of your lungs and windpipe, and then out of your nose or mouth. Breathing out requires no effort from your body unless you have a lung disease or are doing physical activity. When you're physically active, your abdominal muscles contract and push your diaphragm against your lungs even more than usual. This rapidly pushes air out of your lungs. How the Lungs and Respiratory System Work You usually don't even notice it, but twelve to twenty times per minute, day after day, you breathe -- thanks to your body's respiratory system. Your lungs expand and contract, supplying life-sustaining oxygen to your body and removing from it, a waste product called carbon dioxide. The Act of Breathing Breathing starts at the nose and mouth. You inhale air into your nose or mouth, and it travels down the back of your throat and into your windpipe, or trachea. Your trachea then divides into air passages called bronchial tubes. For your lungs to perform their best, these airways need to be open during inhalation and exhalation and free from inflammation or swelling and excess or abnormal amounts of mucus. The Lungs As the bronchial tubes pass through the lungs, they divide into smaller air passages called bronchioles. The bronchioles end in tiny balloon-like air sacs called alveoli. Your body has over 300 million alveoli. The alveoli are surrounded by a mesh of tiny blood vessels called capillaries. Here, oxygen from the inhaled air passes through the alveoli walls and into the blood. After absorbing oxygen, the blood leaves the lungs and is carried to your heart. Your heart then pumps it through your body to provide oxygen to the cells of your tissues and organs. As the cells use the oxygen, carbon dioxide is produced and absorbed into the blood. Your blood then carries the carbon dioxide back to your lungs, where it is removed from the body when you exhale. The Diaphragm's Role in Breathing Inhalation and exhalation are the processes by which the body brings in oxygen and expels carbon dioxide. The breathing process is aided by a large dome-shaped muscle under the lungs called the diaphragm. When you breathe in, the diaphragm contracts downward, creating a vacuum that causes a rush of fresh air into the lungs. The opposite occurs with exhalation, where the diaphragm relaxes upwards, pushing on the lungs, allowing them to deflate. Clearing the Air The respiratory system has built-in methods to prevent harmful substances in the air from entering the lungs. Respiratory System Hairs in your nose help filter out large particles. Microscopic hairs, called cilia, are found along your air passages and move in a sweeping motion to keep the air passages clean. But if harmful substances, such as cigarette smoke, are inhaled, the cilia stop functioning properly, causing health problems like bronchitis. Mucus produced by cells in the trachea and bronchial tubes keeps air passages moist and aids in stopping dust, bacteria and viruses, allergy-causing substances, and other substances from entering the lungs. Impurities that do reach the deeper parts of the lungs can often be moved up via mucous and coughed out or swallowed. In the lungs, oxygen and carbon dioxide (a waste product of body processes) are exchanged in the tiny air sacs (alveoli) at the end of the bronchial tubes.
Views: 157652 Science Art
During the day, the sun shines on leaves, triggering guard cells to open. Guard cells allow CO2 to enter the leaf, fueling photosynthesis. While guard cells are open, 90% of the water taken up by a plant is lost. At night, guard cells close to conserve water.
Views: 7540 Melissa Logies
This video channel is developed by Amrita University's CREATE http://www.amrita.edu/create ▶ For more Information @ http://amrita.olabs.edu.in/?sub=79&brch=7&sim=128&cnt=1 ▶ Amrita Online Lab Project Website http://www.olabs.edu.in/ ▶ Subscribe @ https://www.youtube.com/user/amritacreate ▶ Like us @ https://www.facebook.com/CREATEatAmrita Copyright © 2016 Amrita University Developed by Amrita University & CDAC Mumbai. Funded by MeitY (Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology) Study of Stomatal Distribution on Leaves :- Stomata are minute pores found on the epidermis of leaves and young shoots of plants that are used to control exchange of gases. The pore is surrounded by a pair of specialised cells called the guard cells that are responsible in regulating the size of the opening. Distribution of stomata varies between monocots and dicots, between plant species, and between the underside and top side of the leaves on a plant. Stomata are found more on plant surfaces thriving under higher light, lower atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and in moist environments. Usually the lower surface of a dicot leaf has a greater number of stomata while in a monocot leaf they are more or less equal on both surfaces. In most of the floating plants, stomata are found only on the upper epidermis. This video explains how to study the stomatal distribution on the upper and lower leaf surfaces and to calculate the stomatal index.
Views: 164287 amritacreate
Gas Exchange - Delivery of Oxygen & Elimination of Carbon dioxide - Medical Animation Air first enters the body through the mouth or nose, quickly moves to the pharynx (throat), passes through the larynx (voice box), enters the trachea, which branches into a left and right bronchus within the lungs and further divides into smaller and smaller branches called bronchioles. The smallest bronchioles end in tiny air sacs, called alveoli, which inflate during inhalation, and deflate during exhalation. Gas exchange is the delivery of oxygen from the lungs to the bloodstream, and the elimination of carbon dioxide from the bloodstream to the lungs. It occurs in the lungs between the alveoli and a network of tiny blood vessels called capillaries, which are located in the walls of the alveoli. The walls of the alveoli actually share a membrane with the capillaries in which oxygen and carbon dioxide move freely between the respiratory system and the bloodstream. Oxygen molecules attach to red blood cells, which travel back to the heart. At the same time, the carbon dioxide molecules in the alveoli are blown out of the body with the next exhalation.
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ilmkidunya.com has brought to you Lecture of Usama Qamar on "10th Class Biology Chapter 10 Gaseous Exchange. Topic 10.1 Gaseous Exchange in Plants". For more videos of Usama Qamar visit https://www.ilmkidunya.com/study , https://www.instutor.com This lecture is specially recorded for students of 10th class, 10th class from all Punjab Boards and is based on the current curriculum of study for Biology book. All these lectures are conducted in Urdu/English medium to facilitate Pakistani students.
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Follow us at: https://twitter.com/TutorVista Check us out at http://www.tutorvista.com/content/biology/biology-iv/plant-water-relations/role-stomata-transpiration.php Define Stomata Stomata (the word stomata means "mouth") are small pores found in the leaves of the plant that helps in gaseous exchange during photosynthesis and respiration. Stomata consist of two types of cells, the stoma or the pore and guard cells. Stomata are guarded pair of crescent shaped specialized parenchyma cells called guard cells which regulates the size of opening or pore of stomata. Please like our facebook page http://www.facebook.com/tutorvista
Views: 402895 TutorVista
Plant life gas exchange in plants. The gases diffuse into the intercellular spaces of leaf through pores, which are normally on underside stomata exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide in (as well as loss water vapor transpiration) occurs pores called (singular stoma). Plant physiology biology questions and answers. Oxygen and water vapor leave the plant while carbon dioxide enters through pores called S cool, revision websites website. Meritnation gas exchange in plants youtuberespiration funscience explain the process of. Here's a video which explains nicely how fish carry out gas exchange what two things do plants and animals both require? Oxygen carbon dioxide does diffusion (gas exchange) depends on? 1surface the process of gaseous in happens leaves. How does the exchange of gases take place in plants. The leaves and young stems of plants have openings in the epidermis why do need to exchange gases with environment? Cellular respiration, also obtain carbon dioxide carry out photosynthesis especially adapted enable efficient gas exchange, yet at same time large air spaces leaf other parts plant can gain some oxygen overall, it is plant's advantage maximize sunlight trapping surface while keeping thickness a minimum so that only way we achieve through our lungs which provide area this important when talking about insects. Photosynthesis can be considered as the opposite or reverse to respiration in green plants. Normally stomata open when the light strikes leaf in morning and close during night plants respire all time, but photosynthesis only happens day. S cool, the revision website gas exchange in plants. This means that the net gas exchange from a leaf depends on light intensity in plants is required for two critical processes. S cool, the revision websites website. Gas exchange in plants physics & maths tutorgas the a level biologist your hubwhere does gas take place plants? . Exchange of gases in plants biology discussion. Thus gas exchange occurs as a result of respiration, when carbon dioxide is excreted that obtain their oxygen from water can maintain only low metabolic rate. Gas exchange in plants pass my exams easy exam revision notes chemistry for biologists gas. Gas exchange in plants is dominated by the roles of carbon dioxide, and when a plant actively photosynthesising light, it will be taking xerophytes perform almost all their gas at night, because unlike animals, have no specialized organs for (with each part such as leaves, stems roots own respiration single celled organisms protists do not organ must rely on direct gases woody photosynthesis and, like leaves best answer can occur several ways most. Bbc bitesize gcse biology gas exchange in plants revision 1. Uk a level gas exchange in plants class "" url? Q webcache. Gas exchange in plants kimball's biology pages. They do so by taking in oxygen from the air spaces present soil. This oxygen enters 8 feb 2013. S cool, the revision website s cool. They require oxygen for respir
Views: 692 Upul ANSWERS
One of the small areas on the surface of the stems and roots of woody plants that allow the interchange of gases between the metabolically active interior tissue and the surrounding air or pockets of air in the soil. Lenticels are portions of the periderm that have numerous pores or intercellular spaces.
Views: 366 mugabi joshua
Quickly investigate the photosynthesis and cellular respiration of spinach leaves using the PASPORT Carbon Dioxide Gas Sensor in this lab from the latest version of PASCO's "Biology through Inquiry" manual. For more information, see Carbon Dioxide Gas Sensor: http://pasco.com/go?ps-2110 Biology through Inquiry lab manual: http://pasco.com/go?ps-2870b SPARKvue software: http://pasco.com/sparkvue
Views: 32522 pascoscientific
In this video, we look at how gases are exchanged in the lungs. We start by looking at the overall structure of the lungs and then explore how the alveoli are adapted for maximum diffusion of gases in and out of the bloodstream. Deliberate Thought by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) Source: http://incompetech.com/music/royalty-free/?keywords=deliberate+thought Artist: http://incompetech.com/ Image credits: All images were created by and are the property of Autonomy Education Ltd.
Views: 83091 Freesciencelessons
Plants obtain the gases they need through their leaves. They require oxygen for respiration and carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. The gases diffuse into the intercellular spaces of the leaf through pores, which are normally on the underside of the leaf - stomata.
Views: 50 Darsgah
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A Level Biology (NEW) Gas Exchange in a Dicotyledonous Leaf A-Level Biology Revision Notes ★★★ SUBSCRIBE | LIKE | SHARE | COMMENT BELOW! (ツ) ★★★
Views: 1104 Learnbiology Net
Plants leaves are sealed with a gas-tight wax layer to prevent water loss. Plants breathe through microscopic pores called stomata (Greek for mouths) on the surfaces of leaves. Over 40% of the carbon dioxide, CO2, in the atmosphere passes through stomata each year, as well a water volume twice that of the whole atmosphere. As the key conduits for CO2 uptake and water evaporation, stomata are critical for both our climate and plant productivity. Thus, not surprisingly, the total number and distribution of stomata are strictly regulated by plants to optimize photosynthesis while minimizing water loss. The mechanisms for such regulation have remained elusive.
Views: 203 Carnegie Science
This Hindi video discusses about respiration in plants. It explains how gaseous exchange take place in plants. It is mapped to class 10 biology chapter – Life Processes (Respiration) About us: We are a social enterprise working on a mission to make school learning interesting, relevant and affordable to every child on this planet. You can watch our FREE online videos at http://www.bodhaguru.com/watch and download our practice application/games - just visit http://www.bodhaguru.com/play If you like our videos, subscribe to our channel http://www.youtube.com/user/BodhaGuruLearning. Feel free to connect with us at http://www.facebook.com/BodhaGuru OR http://twitter.com/Bodhaguru Have fun, while you learn. Thanks for watching -- Team BodhaGuru
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The cells in the spongy mesophyll (lower layer) are loosely packed, and covered by a thin film of water. Bbc bitesize gcse biology plants revision 2. Bbc bitesize gcse biology gas exchange in plants revision 2. Uk education guides zxtcwmn revision 2 url? Q webcache. Chapter 1 light use and leaf gas exchange plants in actiongas physics & maths tutor2. Particularly in the palisade and spongy mesophyll layer of plant to leaf allow efficient gas exchange prevent excess water loss on very or diffused into small thin leaves that are adapted specifically a url? Q mrothery. The walls of the alveoli are composed a single layer flattened epithelial cells, there's usually only one these particular and they're located near bend move in wind, which itself helps gases around leaf's cells. The structure of the leaf is adapted for gas exchange. Purpose of how are leaves adapted for efficient photosynthesis? They. How is the spongy layer in leaves adapted for gas exchange leaf structure and adaptations photosynthesis a understanding of pass my exams easy exam revision notes structure, function, adaptation boundless. The mesophyll has two layers an upper palisade layer and a lower spongy section 1. Large surface area 2 dec 2014 the leaf is organ in a plant specially adapted for photosynthesis. Chemistry for biologists gas exchange. Organisms are differently adapted so gas exchange can take place whether it be in water or on land. Stomata [stomata tiny holes in the epidermis (skin) of a leaf usually on undersides leaves. Spongy mesophyll cells are covered by a thin layer of water and loosely packed. They control water loss and gas exchange by openng closing the internal structure of leaf is also adapted to promote efficient photosynthesis spongy layer, air spaces allow carbon dioxide diffuse through leaf, happens in mesophyll tissue. Bbc gcse bitesize science exchange system in plants bbc leaves and photosynthesis. Cell membrane acts as the exchange surface, it is thin and moist so efficient at its job spongy mesophyll cells in leaves of a plant are effective surfaces. Gas exchange in plants revision 2. That gas exchange between air space and mesophyll is speeded up the structures of leaves are adapted for efficient photosynthesis as shown in table below. That shade leaves (thinner and with higher chlorophyll content) are more efficient. The palisade parenchyma cells are on top and the spongy mesophyll is belowthe respiratory surface gas exchange efficiency4 35 more ball shaped than cylindrical like in layer. Stomata on gas exchange occurs as a result of respiration, when carbon dioxide is excreted large surface area to volume ratio act an efficient 28 jun 2013 particularly in the palisade and spongy mesophyll layer plant leaf allow prevent excess water loss very or diffused into small thin leaves that are adapted specifically all organisms need substances such food, waste, gases heat with their surroundings. It produces a waxy layer, called the cuticle, which is n
Views: 283 Upul ANSWERS
This Biology video explains in detail about the gaseous exchange in plants. This video is meant for students studying in class 9 and 10 in CBSE/NCERT and other state boards. About us: We are a social enterprise working on a mission to make school learning interesting, relevant and affordable to every child on this planet. You can watch our FREE online videos at http://www.bodhaguru.com/watch and download our practice application/games - just visit http://www.bodhaguru.com/play If you like our videos, subscribe to our channel http://www.youtube.com/user/BodhaGuruLearning. Feel free to connect with us at http://www.facebook.com/BodhaGuru OR http://twitter.com/Bodhaguru Have fun, while you learn. Thanks for watching -- Team BodhaGuru
Views: 1465 Bodhaguru
In this video, we look at the different tissues present in a plant. First we explore the tissues in a leaf and look at the functions of each tissue. We then explore meristem tissue. Image credits: Maple leaves "By cogdogblog (https://www.flickr.com/photos/cogdog/5977316322/) [CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3A2011-365-206_Circle_of_Maple_(5977316322).jpg" Crasula By Daniel,levine at English Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=48760656 Root meristem "https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rootmeristem40x1.jpg By John Alan Elson (http://www.3dham.com/vegetable/index.html) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC BY-SA 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons" Music credit: Deliberate Thought by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) Source: http://incompetech.com/music/royalty-free/?keywords=deliberate+thought Artist: http://incompetech.com/
Views: 73107 Freesciencelessons
Concept of stomata, aerobic respiration in plants, 9th, 10th class, Lahore board, lenticels
Views: 297 Study Guide
What is GAS EXCHANGE? What does GAS EXCHANGE mean? GAS EXCHANGE meaning - GAS EXCHANGE definition - GAS EXCHANGE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Gas exchange is the biological process by which gases move passively by diffusion across a surface. Typically, this surface is - or contains - a biological membrane that forms the boundary between an organism and its extracellular environment. Gases are constantly consumed and produced by cellular and metabolic reactions in most living things, so an efficient system for gas exchange between, ultimately, the interior of the cell(s) and the external environment is required. Small, particularly unicellular organisms, such as bacteria and protozoa, have a high surface-area to volume ratio. In these creatures the gas exchange membrane is typically the cell membrane. Some small multicellular organisms, such as flatworms, are also able to perform sufficient gas exchange across the skin or cuticle that surrounds their bodies. However, in most larger organisms, which have a small surface-area to volume ratios, specialised structures with convoluted surfaces such as gills, pulmonary alveoli and spongy mesophyll provide the large area needed for effective gas exchange. These convoluted surfaces may sometimes be internalised into the body of the organism. This is the case with the alveoli, which form the inner surface of the mammalian lung, the spongy mesophyll, which is found inside the leaves of some kinds of plant, or the gills of those molluscs that have them, which are found in the mantle cavity. In aerobic organisms, gas exchange is particularly important for respiration, which involves the uptake of oxygen (O 2) and release of carbon dioxide (CO 2). Conversely, in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms such as most land plants, uptake of carbon dioxide and release of both oxygen and water vapour are the main gas-exchange processes occurring during the day. Other gas-exchange processes are important in less familiar organisms: e.g. carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen are exchanged across the cell membrane of methanogenic archaea. In nitrogen fixation by diazotrophic bacteria, and denitrification by heterotrophic bacteria (such as Paracoccus denitrificans and various pseudomonads), nitrogen gas is exchanged with the environment, being taken up by the former and released into it by the latter, while giant tube worms rely on bacteria to oxidize hydrogen sulfide extracted from their deep sea environment, using dissolved oxygen in the water as an electron acceptor.
Views: 161 The Audiopedia