In this video, 25.01 – Statement of Cash Flows – Lesson 1, Roger Philipp, CPA, CGMA, is excited to present a brief conceptual overview of the statement of cash flows - an important topic that is heavily tested on the CPA Exam. Under U.S. GAAP, any company presenting results of operations in its financial statements must include a statement of cash flows. The statement of cash flows shows cash balance at the beginning of the year and cash balance at the end of the year, while also accounting for the changes between the beginning and ending balances.
Cash flows derive from operating activities, investing activities, or financing activities, and the net amount from all these activities will equal the overall increase or decrease in cash balance from the beginning of the year to the end.
Investing and financing activities are clearly defined by the FASB while operating activities is more of a catch-all category. Roger defines cash and cash equivalents while providing illustrative examples for the original maturity date to the purchaser rule for deciding whether an asset is a cash equivalent or an investment. Also, be forewarned – there are lots of journal entries that lie ahead!
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Video Transcript Sneak Peek:
Welcome, welcome to a fun and exciting area called statement of cash flows. Cash flows, very heavily tested. Very important area, we are going to probably spend an hour, hour and a half on this right now. In different sections or different little video clips, but it's going to be a really important area. You need to understand this, heavily tested on the exam. Very important for real world, right? You are out there doing a job. This is stuff we're going to cover both for GAAP and then at the very end of the section under IFRS and the comparisons and differences.
Alright, statement of cash flows. So we've got our statements. Whose statements are these? Management's, right? Management is responsible for the preparation for the content, and so on. A complete set of financial statements is a balance sheet, income statements, and statement of changes in stock holder's equity, statement of cash flows, other comprehensive income, and things like that.
So a statement of cash flows is just this. It talks about how much cash did I have at the beginning of the year burning a hole in my pocket, how much cash do I have at the end of the year? We are looking at the difference between the beginning and the end and we are trying to see, what are the ch-ch-ch-changes in cash? So what it tells me is, how much cash do I have at the beginning, how much cash do I have at the end? The difference is the increase or decrease in cash.
So let's say for example at the beginning of the year I had $100, at the end of the year I have $250. That means I've got $150 more cash burning a hole in my pocket. My job is to figure out, where did this cash come from? As we look at this we are going to see the cash could come from either operating activities or investing activities or financing activities. You are going to see this plus or minus this plus or minus this equals the net change.
So what we are trying to do is say, “Hey, I've got $150 more money in my pocket, where did it come from?" Where did that money come from? That's the purpose of the statement of cash flows. So what we're going to have to do is understand, first of all, what is the definition of cash, because we are talking about the change of cash.
The other thing is, we need to define what these activities are. The FASB very carefully defined investing and financing. If it's not investing or financing, what is? Boom, operating. Operating is like the catch-all. If you don't know where to put it, put it in operating. So that's what we're looking at as far as where the amounts are coming from.
We've got operating, investing and financing. FASB carefully defines investing and financing. Everything else is what? Operating. So again, the key is the change. ♫Ch-ch-ch-changes, and face the strain ♫ who sang that song, many years ago? D-d-d-d-David Bowie. Ch-changes, there you go!
Alright, looking at notes it says, "Statement of cash flows is required whenever a company presents their results of operations". So you provide an income statement you've got to have a statement of cash flows. The purpose is to provide in-flows and out-flows, sources and uses. What is the source of money coming in, what is the use of money going out? Where did the money come from, where is the money going to? That's our sources and uses.