In this video we discuss hydrogen bonds. We cover how do hydrogen bonds form, the different elements that take part in hydrogen bonds, and why doesn't oil and water mix. What are hydrogen bonds? An attractive force called a hydrogen bond can exist between certain molecules. These bonds are weaker than ionic or covalent bonds, because it takes less energy to break these types of bonds, however, a large number of these bonds going on can exert a strong force. Hydrogen bonds are the result of an unequal charge distribution on a molecule, these molecules are said to be polar. If we look at a water molecule, we can see the oxygen atom shares electrons with 2 different hydrogen atoms. So, in total this molecule has 10 protons, 8 from oxygen and 1 each from the hydrogen atoms, and a total of 10 electrons, 2 shared between the oxygen atom and hydrogen atom number one, 2 shared between the oxygen atom and hydrogen atom number 2, and the other 6 non shared electrons from the oxygen atom. So, this water molecule is electrically neutral, but it has a partial positive side, the hydrogen side, and a partial negative side, the oxygen side of the molecule. The electrons are not shared equally within the molecule, as they have a higher probability of being found closer to the nucleus of the oxygen atom, giving that end a slightly negative charge. So, the hydrogen atoms end of the molecule will have a slightly positive charge. These charged ends weakly attach the positive end of one water molecule to the negative end of an adjacent water molecule. When water is in liquid form there a few hydrogen bonds, solid form, many bonds, and when water is steam or gas, there are no bonds, because the molecules are too far apart to form any bonds. Hydrogen bonds only form between hydrogen atoms that are covalently bonded, or bonds where electrons are being shared and not transferred, to an oxygen, nitrogen or fluorine atom. These bonds make water ideal for the chemistry of life. Hydrogen bonds are also important in the structure of proteins and nucleic acids, which we will cover in later videos. So, now we know that water molecules are polar, or have slightly positive and slightly negative ends, and in fact, many lipids, or fats and oils, are not polar. So their molecules share electrons equally in their bonds. So, these are nonpolar molecules. This means that when water and oil come together they do not form bonds with one another. Even when we try to mix them, the water molecules will eventually separate because their polar molecules are attracted to one another and will form hydrogen bonds, separating the water and the nonpolar oil molecules.
Views: 88685 Whats Up Dude
Reactants and products in reversible and irreversible chemical reactions. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/water-acids-and-bases/hydrogen-bonding-in-water/v/hydrogen-bonding-in-water?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=biology Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/chemistry--of-life/chemical-bonds-and-reactions/v/intermolecular-forces-and-molecular-bonds?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=biology Biology on Khan Academy: Life is beautiful! From atoms to cells, from genes to proteins, from populations to ecosystems, biology is the study of the fascinating and intricate systems that make life possible. Dive in to learn more about the many branches of biology and why they are exciting and important. Covers topics seen in a high school or first-year college biology course. About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy's Biology channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC82qE46vcTn7lP4tK_RHhdg?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 262570 Khan Academy
Learn the basics about the covalent bonding of water, when learning about covalent bonding within properties of matter. Water is made from one oxygen atom and two hydrogens. The oxygen has 6 electrons in its outer shell, but it really wants to have 8 to have a full shell. The hydrogens have one outer shell electron, but want to have two. The atoms share their electrons, forming covalent bonds. So all three atoms have full outer shells, and create a water molecule. Water has two covalent bonds. In water, the bonding electrons spend most of their time nearer the oxygen atom, because it is more ELECTRONEGATIVE. This means that it is electron withdrawing. As the negatively charged electrons are nearer the oxygen atom, the oxygen atom becomes a little bit negative itself, while the hydrogens become a little positive. This is called delta positive and delta negative. Water doesn’t just have any old covalent bonds; it has what we call POLAR COVALENT bonds and is a POLAR molecule. This is really important as it affects how water behaves and reacts with other elements. SUBSCRIBE to the Fuse School YouTube channel for many more educational videos. Our teachers and animators come together to make fun & easy-to-understand videos in Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Maths & ICT. JOIN our platform at www.fuseschool.org This video is part of 'Chemistry for All' - a Chemistry Education project by our Charity Fuse Foundation - the organisation behind The Fuse School. These videos can be used in a flipped classroom model or as a revision aid. Find our other Chemistry videos here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLW0gavSzhMlReKGMVfUt6YuNQsO0bqSMV Twitter: https://twitter.com/fuseSchool Access a deeper Learning Experience in the Fuse School platform and app: www.fuseschool.org Follow us: http://www.youtube.com/fuseschool Friend us: http://www.facebook.com/fuseschool This Open Educational Resource is free of charge, under a Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC ( View License Deed: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ). You are allowed to download the video for nonprofit, educational use. If you would like to modify the video, please contact us: [email protected]
Views: 42579 FuseSchool - Global Education
There are four types of chemical bonds essential for life to exist: Ionic Bonds, Covalent Bonds, Hydrogen Bonds, and van der Waals interactions. We need all of these different kinds of bonds to play various roles in biochemical interactions. These bonds vary in their strengths. In Chemistry, we think of Ionic Bonds and Covalent bonds as having an overlapping range of strengths. But remember, in biochemistry, everything is happening in the context of water. This means Ionic bonds tend to dissociate in water. Thus, we will think of these bonds in the following order (strongest to weakest): Covalent, Ionic, Hydrogen, and van der Waals. Also note that in Chemistry, the weakest bonds are more commonly referred to as “dispersion forces.” Related Chemistry video: Ionic Bonds vs Covalent Bonds http://bit.ly/2cUG6C8 Our series on Biology is aimed at the first-year college level, including pre-med students. These videos should also be helpful for students in challenging high school biology courses. Perfect for preparing for the AP Biology exam or the Biology SAT. Also appropriate for advanced homeschoolers. You can also follow along if you are just curious, and would like to know more about this fascinating subject. ***** Our current biology textbook recommendation is Campbell Biology from Pearson. 10th edition Amazon Link: http://amzn.to/2mahQTi 11th edition Amazon Link: http://amzn.to/2m7xU6w Amazon Used Textbooks - Save up to 90% http://amzn.to/2pllk4B For lighter reading, we recommend: I Contain Multitudes: The Microbes Within Us and a Grander View of Life by Ed Yong http://amzn.to/2pLOddQ Lab Girl by Hope Jahren http://amzn.to/2oMolPg ***** This video was made possible by the generous donations of our Patrons on Patreon. We dedicate this video to our VIP Patron, Vishal Shah. We’re so thankful for your support! ***** Please Subscribe so you'll hear about our newest videos! http://bit.ly/1ixuu9W If you found this video helpful, please give it a "thumbs up" and share it with your friends! If you'd like to support more great educational videos from Socratica, please consider becoming our Patron on Patreon! https://www.patreon.com/socratica ***** Written and Produced by Kimberly Hatch Harrison About our instructor: Kimberly Hatch Harrison received degrees in Biology and English Literature from Caltech before working in pharmaceuticals research, developing drugs for autoimmune disorders. She then continued her studies in Molecular Biology (focusing on Immunology and Neurobiology) at Princeton University, where she began teaching as a graduate student. Her success in teaching convinced her to leave the glamorous world of biology research and turn to teaching full-time, accepting a position at an exclusive prep school, where she taught biology and chemistry for eight years. She is now the head writer and producer of Socratica Studios. ****** Creative Commons Picture Credits: Salt crystals https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Halit-Kristalle.jpg Author: W.J. Pilsak Hydrogen Bonding in water https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:3D_model_hydrogen_bonds_in_water.svg Author: Qwerter Products in this video: Preparing for the Biology AP* Exam (School Edition) (Pearson Education Test Prep) - http://amzn.to/2qJVbxm Cracking the AP Biology Exam, 2017 Edition: Proven Techniques to Help You Score a 5 (College Test Preparation) - http://amzn.to/2qB3NsZ Cracking the SAT Biology E/M Subject Test, 15th Edition (College Test Preparation) - http://amzn.to/2qJIfHN
Views: 39047 Socratica
To see all my Chemistry videos, check out http://socratic.org/chemistry Hydrogen bonding can be so confusing, and in this video we talk about some common mistakes. Hydrogen bonds are intermolecular forces between molecules. They form because one atom has a high electronegativity, so it gets a partial negative charge, and the hydrogen gets a partial positive charge.
Views: 551545 Tyler DeWitt
Atoms are a lot like us - we call their relationships "bonds," and there are many different types. Each kind of atomic relationship requires a different type of energy, but they all do best when they settle into the lowest stress situation possible. The nature of the bond between atoms is related to the distance between them and, like people, it also depends on how positive or negative they are. Unlike with human relationships, we can analyze exactly what makes chemical relationships work, and that's what this episode is all about. If you are paying attention, you will learn that chemical bonds form in order to minimize the energy difference between two atoms or ions; that those chemical bonds may be covalent if atoms share electrons, and that covalent bonds can share those electrons evenly or unevenly; that bonds can also be ionic if the electrons are transferred instead of shared: and how to calculate the energy transferred in an ionic bond using Coulomb's Law. -- Table of Contents Bonds Minimize Energy 01:38 Covalent Bonds 03:18 Ionic Bonds 05:37 Coulomb's Law 05:51 -- Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
Views: 1732792 CrashCourse
This chemistry video tutorial focuses on intermolecular forces such hydrogen bonding, ion-ion interactions, dipole dipole, ion dipole, london dispersion forces and van deer waal forces. It contains plenty of examples and practice problems to help you understand the most important concepts related to this material. General Chemistry Video Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bka20Q9TN6M&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BV-uX6wXQgyqZXvRd0tUUV0&index=3 Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/ Here is a list of topics: 1. Ion - Ion dipole interactions of KF and CaO 2. Electrostatic Force and Lattice Energy- The effect of charge and ionic radii or size 3. How To Determine Which Ionic Compound has a Higher Melting Point - NaF vs KCl 4. Ion-Dipole Interactions - NaCl and H2O 5. Definition of a Dipole - Polar Molecules & Charge Separation 6. Dipole-Dipole Interactions of Polar Molecules - Partial Charge Electrostatic Attractions of CO 7. Hydrogen Bonding between Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Fluorine 8. Intermolecular Forces vs Intramolecular Forces 9. Hydrogen Bonding vs Polar & Nonpolar Covalent Bonds 10. London Dispersion Forces & Van Der Waals Forces 11. Permanent Dipoles and Temporary Induced Dipoles - Distribution of electrons in electron cloud 12. Difference Between Atoms and Ions - Cations vs Anions - Number of Electrons and Protons 13. The relationship between Polarizability and Dispersion Forces 14. How To Determine the Strongest Intermolecular Forces In Compounds Such as MgO, KCl, H2O, CH4, CO2, SO2, HF, CH3OH, LiCl, CH2O, CO, and I2 15. The relationship between Boiling Point and Vapor Pressure 16. Straight Chained vs Branched Alkanes - Boiling Point and Intermolecular Forces - Surface Area 17. Ranking Boiling Point In Order of Increasing Strength for I2, Br2, F2, and Cl2 18. Polar and Nonpolar Organic Compounds - Polarity and Water Solubility 19. Ranking Boiling In Decreasing Order For HF, HCl, HBr, and HI 20. The effect of Molar Mass and Number of electrons on the Overall Intermolecular Force / LDF
Views: 364809 The Organic Chemistry Tutor
Why is water essential for Life to exist on Earth? We are about 60% water - and there are some organisms that are as much as 90% water! What is so important about water? How does it support life? In this video, we discuss the special properties of water that make it the “Solvent of Life.” Chief among these properties is the extensive Hydrogen Bonding between water molecules that make water an extremely cohesive liquid (the molecules stick together). Due to the extensive hydrogen bonding, water has some emergent properties that impact life on Earth in many ways. These include: Cohesion Adhesion High surface tension High specific heat High heat of vaporization Ice Floats (Ice is less dense as a solid than liquid water) For each of these properties, we discuss how they impact living creatures on Earth. ❀❀❀❀❀❀❀❀❀❀ Our series on Biology is aimed at the first-year college level, including pre-med students. These videos should also be helpful for students in challenging high school biology courses. Perfect for preparing for the AP Biology exam or the Biology SAT. Also appropriate for advanced homeschoolers. You can also follow along if you are just curious, and would like to know more about this fascinating subject. Our current biology textbook recommendation is Campbell Biology from Pearson. 10th edition Amazon Link: http://amzn.to/2mahQTi 11th edition Amazon Link: http://amzn.to/2m7xU6w Shop Amazon Used Textbooks - Save up to 90% http://amzn.to/2pllk4B For lighter reading, we recommend: I Contain Multitudes: The Microbes Within Us and a Grander View of Life by Ed Yong http://amzn.to/2pLOddQ Lab Girl by Hope Jahren http://amzn.to/2oMolPg ❀❀❀❀❀❀❀❀❀❀ This video was made possible by the generous donations of our Patrons on Patreon! We dedicate this video to our VIP Patron, Tracy Karin Prell. Tracy is an amazing advocate for science communication. Thank you so much, Tracy! ❀❀❀❀❀❀❀❀❀❀ Please Subscribe so you'll hear about our newest videos! http://bit.ly/1ixuu9W If you found this video helpful, please give it a "thumbs up" and share it with your friends! If you'd like to support more great educational videos from Socratica, please consider becoming our Patron on Patreon! https://www.patreon.com/socratica ❀❀❀❀❀❀❀❀❀❀ Directed by Michael Harrison Written and Produced by Kimberly Hatch Harrison About our instructor: Kimberly Hatch Harrison received degrees in Biology and English Literature from Caltech before working in pharmaceuticals research, developing drugs for autoimmune disorders. She then continued her studies in Molecular Biology (focusing on Immunology and Neurobiology) at Princeton University, where she began teaching as a graduate student. Her success in teaching convinced her to leave the glamorous world of biology research and turn to teaching full-time, accepting a position at an exclusive prep school, where she taught biology and chemistry for eight years. She is now the head writer and producer of Socratica Studios. ❀❀❀❀❀❀❀❀❀❀ Creative Commons Picture Credits Basilisk running on water https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Basiliscus_basiliscus_running_on_water_-_pone.0037300.s001.ogv Author: Minetti et al. xylem http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0089934 Author: Boutilier et al 2014 PLOS Meniscus http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0050320 Author: Jingmin et al 2012 PLOS Little girl drinking https://pixabay.com/en/girl-thirsty-drink-fountain-water-2241750/ Author: brisch27 Army scout drinking https://pixabay.com/en/girl-scout-army-thirsty-sensuality-932421/ Author: AdinaVoicu Water drop Macro View http://www.publicdomainpictures.net/view-image.php?image=173836&picture=water-drop-macro-view Author: JeanBeauford Woman in the Ocean http://www.publicdomainpictures.net/view-image.php?image=172525&picture=woman-in-the-ocean Author: JeanBeauford Water on fabric https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Water_droplet_lying_on_a_damask.jpg Author: Petar Milosevic Water strider https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:WaterstriderEnWiki.jpg Author: PD Polar bear on ice https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Polar_Bear_AdF.jpg Author: Arturo de Frias Marques Penguins on ice https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pygoscelis_antarctica_trying_to_get_to_iceberg.wmv.ogv Author: Brocken Inaglory Cells (colourized) https://pixabay.com/en/white-blood-cell-cell-blood-cell-543471 Author: skeeze Hydrogen bonds in water https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:3D_model_hydrogen_bonds_in_water.svg Author: Qwerter Water strider footage https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Vesimittareita.ogv Author: Uusijani roadrunner https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_Greater_Roadrunner_Walking.jpg Author: Jessie Eastland Partially frozen pond http://www.publicdomainpictures.net/view-image.php?image=15079&picture=partially-frozen-pond Author: David Wagner
Views: 21850 Socratica
This lecture takes you through some applications of chemistry including some covalent bonding, hydrogen bonding and polarity, solubility, and the energy of chemical reactions including the concept of catalysts
Views: 176 Dr Greg
Thanks for watching :) Please click on the links below to support me 1. Click here to download Giftpanda, a top paying app that pays you to watch videos, play quizzes, tryout games, surveys and much more. Please use the link below as you will get sign up credit 500 coins while i get refferal points :) https://www.ayetstudios.com/giftpanda/UBKAJF or use promo code UBKAJF 2. Install Tubebuddy chrome extension for optimizing youtube videos :) https://www.tubebuddy.com/YTpromotion
Views: 26849 Kabi
Hank teaches us why water is one of the most fascinating and important substances in the universe. Follow SciShow on Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/scishow Like SciShow on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/scishow Review: Re-watch = 00:00 Introduction = 00:42 Molecular structure & hydrogen bonds = 01:38 Cohesion & surface tension = 02:46 Adhesion = 03:31 Hydrophilic substances = 04:42 Hydrophobic substances = 05:14 Henry Cavendish = 05:49 Ice Density = 07:45 Heat Capacity = 09:10 Crash Course Biology is now available on DVD! http://dftba.com/product/1av/CrashCourse-Biology-The-Complete-Series-DVD-Set Citations: http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/youthdevelopment/components/0328-02.html http://www.uni.edu/~iowawet/H2OProperties.html http://www.hometrainingtools.com/properties-water-science-teaching-tip/a/1274/ http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/geophysics/h2o7.htm http://www.robinsonlibrary.com/science/chemistry/biography/cavendish.htm http://chemistry.mtu.edu/~pcharles/SCIHISTORY/HenryCavendish.html http://www.nndb.com/people/030/000083778/ http://www.notablebiographies.com/Ca-Ch/Cavendish-Henry.html TAGS: water, hydrogen, oxygen, molecule, covalent bond, cohesion, adhesion, polarity, hydrogen bond, surface tension, capillary action, hydrophilic, hydrophobic, ionic bond, ion, universal solvent, henry cavendish, chemistry, specific gravity, density, heat capacity, evaporation, biology, crashcourse, crash course, hank green Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
Views: 3093920 CrashCourse
Explore some properties of water with the Amoeba Sisters! It's all about those hydrogen bonds. Video has handout: http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts Terms discussed include adhesion, cohesion, surface tension, specific heat - all made possible by those amazing hydrogen bonds. Support us on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/amoebasisters Our FREE resources: GIFs: http://www.amoebasisters.com/gifs.html Handouts: http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts.html Comics: http://www.amoebasisters.com/parameciumparlorcomics Connect with us! Website: http://www.AmoebaSisters.com Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/AmoebaSisters Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/AmoebaSisters Tumblr: http://www.amoebasisters.tumblr.com Pinterest: http://www.pinterest.com/AmoebaSisters Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/amoebasistersofficial/ Visit our Redbubble store at http://www.amoebasisters.com/store.html The Amoeba Sisters videos demystify science with humor and relevance. The videos center on Pinky's certification and experience in teaching science at the high school level. Pinky's teacher certification is in grades 4-8 science and 8-12 composite science (encompassing biology, chemistry, and physics). Amoeba Sisters videos only cover concepts that Pinky is certified to teach, and they focus on her specialty: secondary life science. For more information about The Amoeba Sisters, visit: http://www.amoebasisters.com/about-us.html We cover the basics in biology concepts at the secondary level. If you are looking to discover more about biology and go into depth beyond these basics, our recommended reference is the FREE, peer reviewed, open source OpenStax biology textbook: https://openstax.org/details/books/biology *We mention that water makes up "3/4 of the Earth's surface" and we wish we had said "nearly" This number is going to be an estimate, but here is a source that puts it around 71%. https://water.usgs.gov/edu/earthhowmuch.html We take pride in our AWESOME community, and we welcome feedback and discussion. However, please remember that this is an education channel. See YouTube's community guidelines https://www.youtube.com/yt/policyandsafety/communityguidelines.html and YouTube's policy center https://support.google.com/youtube/topic/2676378?hl=en&ref_topic=6151248. We also reserve the right to remove comments with vulgar language. Music is this video is listed free to use/no attribution required from the YouTube audio library https://www.youtube.com/audiolibrary/music?feature=blog We have YouTube's community contributed subtitles feature on to allow translations for different languages. YouTube automatically credits the different language contributors below (unless the contributor had opted out of being credited). We are thankful for those that contribute different languages. If you have a concern about community contributed contributions, please contact us.
Views: 725983 Amoeba Sisters
In this video we will look at covalent bonds in methane, ammonia, water and hydrogen fluoride. They are small, covalently-bonded molecules. The atoms within them share electrons because they have half full or more than half full valence shells of electrons: they are non-metals. Methane is a fuel, ammonia is used in household cleaners, water is a drink and the essence of life, and hydrogen fluoride is used to etch glass. The bonding in methane, ammonia, water and hydrogen fluoride shows a pattern: methane is carbon bonded to four hydrogen atoms; ammonia is nitrogen bonded to three hydrogen atoms; water is oxygen bonded to two hydrogen atoms, and hydrogen fluoride is fluorine bonded to just one hydrogen atom. Carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and fluorine appear in the periodic table in this order, moving along the second row from left to right. Carbon has four out of eight electrons in its outer shell, so makes four covalent bonds. Nitrogen has five out of eight electrons in its outer shell, so can make three covalent bonds to make the shell full. Oxygen has 6 electrons in its outer shell. It can bond with two hydrogen atoms to share 2 more electrons. It now has a full outer shell of 8 electrons. Ammonia has two electrons, called a lone pair of electrons, occupying the fourth position. These electrons take up space. Because electrons are negatively charged, lone pairs repel bonds even more strongly than bonds repel each other. This makes ammonia less symmetric than methane. The water molecule is bent in shape. Oxygen has two lone pairs. Negatively charged lone pairs are slightly attracted to the hydrogen atoms, so there is a weak attraction between molecules. Forces between molecules are a little stronger in water than in ammonia or methane. Water is liquid at room temperature and pressure, whilst ammonia a gas that is easily liquefied, and methane is a gas. Intermolecular forces are normally very weak in covalent compounds, but in water they are just strong enough to keep it liquid. A bit more energy is needed to overcome these forces and boil it. If water were not a liquid, life as we know it would be completely different! Ethanol contains carbon and oxygen bonding. The carbon atoms always form four bonds and the oxygen forms two. Remember, carbon forms 4 bonds, nitrogen forms 3 bonds and has one lone pair of electrons, and oxygen forms two bonds and looks bent. SUBSCRIBE to the Fuse School YouTube channel for many more educational videos. Our teachers and animators come together to make fun & easy-to-understand videos in Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Maths & ICT. JOIN our platform at www.fuseschool.org This video is part of 'Chemistry for All' - a Chemistry Education project by our Charity Fuse Foundation - the organisation behind FuseSchool. These videos can be used in a flipped classroom model or as a revision aid. Find our other Chemistry videos here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLW0gavSzhMlReKGMVfUt6YuNQsO0bqSMV Twitter: https://twitter.com/fuseSchool Access a deeper Learning Experience in the Fuse School platform and app: www.fuseschool.org Follow us: http://www.youtube.com/fuseschool Friend us: http://www.facebook.com/fuseschool This Open Educational Resource is free of charge, under a Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC ( View License Deed: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ). You are allowed to download the video for nonprofit, educational use. If you would like to modify the video, please contact us: [email protected]
Views: 17363 FuseSchool - Global Education
Learn the basics about the covalent bonding of hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen as a part of the overall topic of properties of matter. The noble gas structure and covalent bonding is also discussed. SUBSCRIBE to the Fuse School YouTube channel for many more educational videos. Our teachers and animators come together to make fun & easy-to-understand videos in Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Maths & ICT. JOIN our platform at www.fuseschool.org This video is part of 'Chemistry for All' - a Chemistry Education project by our Charity Fuse Foundation - the organisation behind The Fuse School. These videos can be used in a flipped classroom model or as a revision aid. Find our other Chemistry videos here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLW0gavSzhMlReKGMVfUt6YuNQsO0bqSMV Twitter: https://twitter.com/fuseSchool Access a deeper Learning Experience in the Fuse School platform and app: www.fuseschool.org Follow us: http://www.youtube.com/fuseschool Friend us: http://www.facebook.com/fuseschool This Open Educational Resource is free of charge, under a Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC ( View License Deed: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ). You are allowed to download the video for nonprofit, educational use. If you would like to modify the video, please contact us: [email protected]
Views: 62587 FuseSchool - Global Education
View full lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/how-polarity-makes-water-behave-strangely-christina-kleinberg Water is both essential and unique. Many of its particular qualities stem from the fact that it consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen, therefore creating an unequal sharing of electrons. From fish in frozen lakes to ice floating on water, Christina Kleinberg describes the effects of polarity. Lesson by Christina Kleinberg, animation by Alan Foreman.
Views: 396826 TED-Ed
Covalent Bonds, Hydrogen Bonds Instructor: Graham Walker View the complete course: http://ocw.mit.edu/7-01SCF11 License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA More information at http://ocw.mit.edu/terms More courses at http://ocw.mit.edu
Views: 29739 MIT OpenCourseWare
*** PLEASE WATCH WITH ANNOTATIONS ON! SOME INACCURACIES IN GRAPHICS ARE NOTED AND CORRECTED IN ANNOTATIONS. THANKS! *** Molecules come in infinite varieties, so in order to help the complicated chemical world make a little more sense, we classify and categorize them. One of the most important of those classifications is whether a molecule is polar or non-polar, which describes a kind of symmetry - not just of the molecule, but of the charge. In this edition of Crash Course Chemistry, Hank comes out for Team Polar, and describes why these molecules are so interesting to him. You'll learn that molecules need to have both charge asymmetry and geometric asymmetry to be polar, and that charge asymmetry is caused by a difference in electronegativities. You'll also learn how to notate a dipole moment (or charge separation) of a molecule, the physical mechanism behind like dissolves like, and why water is so dang good at fostering life on Earth. -- Table of Contents Charge Assymetry & Geometric Asymmetry 01:33 Difference in Electronegatives 01:49 Hank is Team Polar 00:33 Dipole Moment 03:49 Charge Separation of a Molecule 04:12 Like Dissolves Like 04:41 Water is Awesome 05:10 -- Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support CrashCourse on Subbable: http://subbable.com/crashcourse
Views: 2398621 CrashCourse
This organic chemistry video tutorial provides a basic introduction into intermolecular forces, hydrogen bonding, and dipole dipole interactions. It explains how to determine which molecule has a higher boiling point and which has a higher solubility in water. Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEWpbFLzoYGPfuWUMFPSaoA?sub_confirmation=1 Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/ New Organic Chemistry Playlist https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6unef5Hz6SU&index=1&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BXP7TUO7656wg0uF1xYnwgm&t=0s
Views: 31716 The Organic Chemistry Tutor
Highly Recommended - Top Tutors for All Subjects at All Levels here: https://spires.co/franklychemistry This short flash animation takes you down to a millionth of a millimetre to where you can see how water molecules behave. If water is colled to 0 Celsius it freezes. At that point the molecules have sufficiently low kinetic energy for the hydrogen bonds to hold the molecules together permanently.
Views: 908 FranklyChemistry
Covalent Bonding. Noble gases have complete outer electron shells, which make them stable. The coming together and sharing of electron pairs leads to the formation of a chemical bond known as a covalent bond. Two chlorine atoms come together and share their electrons to form a molecule of chlorine. In this way, each atom will have eight electrons in its valence shell. As a single pair of electrons is shared between them, the bond is known as a single covalent bond. A single covalent bond is represented by a single dash between the atoms. When two oxygen atoms come together, they each share 2 electrons to complete their octets. Since they share two pairs of electrons, there is a double bond between the oxygen atoms. Similarly, Nitrogen atoms share a triple covalent bond to form a molecule of Nitrogen.
Views: 1392272 It's AumSum Time
MORE INFORMATION---Av hydrogen bond is the attractive interaction of a hydrogen atom with an electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine, that comes from another molecule or chemical group. The hydrogen must be covalently bonded to another electronegative atom to create the bond. These bonds can occur between molecules (intermolecularly), or within different parts of a single molecule (intramolecularly). The hydrogen bond (5 to 30 kJ/mole) is stronger than a van der Waals interaction, but weaker than covalent or ionic bonds. This type of bond occurs in both inorganic molecules such as water and organic molecules such as DNA.Intermolecular hydrogen bonding is responsible for the high boiling point of water (100 °C) compared to the other group 16 hydrides that have no hydrogen bonds. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding is partly responsible for the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of proteins and nucleic acids. It also plays an important role in the structure of polymers, both synthetic and natural. A hydrogen atom attached to a relatively electronegative atom is a hydrogen bond donor. This electronegative atom is usually fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen. An electronegative atom such as fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen is a hydrogen bond acceptor, regardless of whether it is bonded to a hydrogen atom or not. An example of a hydrogen bond donor is ethanol, which has a hydrogen bonded to oxygen; an example of a hydrogen bond acceptor which does not have a hydrogen atom bonded to it is the oxygen atom on diethyl ether.xamples of hydrogen bond donating (donors) and hydrogen bond accepting groups (acceptors) Carboxylic acids often form dimers in vapor phase. A hydrogen attached to carbon can also participate in hydrogen bonding when the carbon atom is bound to electronegative atoms, as is the case in chloroform, CHCl3. The electronegative atom attracts the electron cloud from around the hydrogen nucleus and, by decentralizing the cloud, leaves the atom with a positive partial charge. Because of the small size of hydrogen relative to other atoms and molecules, the resulting charge, though only partial, represents a large charge density. A hydrogen bond results when this strong positive charge density attracts a lone pair of electrons on another heteroatom, which becomes the hydrogen-bond Acceptor.The hydrogen bond is often described as an electrostatic dipole-dipole interaction. However, it also has some features of covalent bonding: it is directional and strong, produces interatomic distances shorter than sum of van der Waals radii, and usually involves a limited number of interaction partners, which can be interpreted as a type of valence. These covalent features are more substantial when acceptors bind hydrogens from more electronegative donors. The partially covalent nature of a hydrogen bond raises the following questions: "To which molecule or atom does the hydrogen nucleus belong?" and "Which should be labeled 'donor' and which 'acceptor'?" Usually, this is simple to determine on the basis of interatomic distances in the X−H...Y system: X−H distance is typically ≈110 pm, whereas H...Y distance is ≈160 to 200 pm. Liquids that display hydrogen bonding are called associated liquids.
Views: 21157 Animation Devastation
Chemical bonding introduction video shows how covalent bond means 2 hydrogen atoms can stick together to form a hydrogen molecule, H2. The video also explains why helium cannot form bonds and hence is called a noble gas. Subscribe to watch more online chemistry courses & science videos: http://www.youtube.com/channel/UCiX8pAYWBppIbtUZTfGnRJw?sub_confirmation=1 About Atomic School: Atomic School supports the teaching of Atomic Theory to primary school & science students . We provide lesson plans, hands-on classroom resources, demonstration equipment, quizzes and a Teacher's Manual to primary school teachers. Animated videos that clearly explain the scientific ideas supports learning by both teachers and students. As a teacher, you don't have to look anywhere else to implement this program. Our work has been verified by science education researchers at the University of Southern Queensland, Dr Jenny Donovan and Dr Carole Haeusler, who confirm that primary students are capable of learning much more complex scientific concepts than previously thought, and crucially, that they love it. Students run to class! The program has been trialed in Australian schools as well as schools in the Philippines, Iran and India. It is conducted as holiday workshops at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, the Queensland Museum as well as the World Science Festival. It has attracted wide media interest, including TV, radio and print, and the research data has been presented at prestigious American Education Research Association and Australian Science Education Research Association conferences. Atomic Theory underlies all the other sciences- genetics, electronics, nanotechnology, engineering and astronomy- so an early understanding will set them up for a more successful learning sequence for all their science subjects, and support their mastery of mathematics as well. We also have extension programs that cover Biology, Physics and Astronomy to an equal depth. About Ian Stuart (Email: [email protected]): The founder of Atomic School, Ian Stuart, taught Chemistry and Physics for 25 years at senior levels before he realized that his 8-year old son, Tom, could understand Atomic Theory at a much deeper level than he expected. After visiting Tom's class at school, he discovered that his peers could also grasp the abstract scientific concepts, as well as apply it usefully to the real world. Ian then developed a program to teach the advanced concepts of high school Chemistry, Physics and Biology to students 10 years younger than they normally would. He found that this engaged their interest in modern science early, and sustained it through to high school and beyond. It also sets them up for future success in their academic and career paths. Ian has a Bachelor's Degree in Chemistry from the University of Queensland and a Master's degree in Electrochemistry from the University of Melbourne. Connect with Atomic School on social media: http://facebook.com/AtomicSchool http://twitter.com/AtomicSchools http://instagram.com/AtomicSchools Video transcript: Let's do a thought experiment. Imagine a box filled with hydrogen atoms. Like billiard balls on a pool table, atoms actually move, and they do it in straight lines until they hit something … like another hydrogen atom. Oh! See that? They stuck together. They’re not separate hydrogen atoms any more, but a pair of hydrogen atoms moving together. There goes another pair. 4.1 When atoms join up like this, scientists call it a molecule. And they call the join between them a chemical bond. Here comes another hydrogen atom crashing into the hydrogen molecule. But this time it doesn’t stick. Instead it just bounces off. Hydrogen atoms bond once, and that’s it. They’re just like that. Pretty quickly all the hydrogen atoms will collide and pair off into molecules. They will keep hitting each other, but they'll just bounce off. Scientists like to have a shorthand way of writing this molecule thingi. Here’s one way to show it, with the hydrogen symbols joined by a stick to show the chemical bond between the atoms. Another way is to write H2, with the little 2 after the H and a bit lower. A number written this way is called a subscript. What do you think the 2 stands for? It counts the number of hydrogen atoms in the molecule. Easy, heh! So when we have a balloon filled with hydrogen gas, it really contains trillions of trillions of H2 molecules. Let's do another thought experiment. We'll go back to our box filled with hydrogen atoms, but this time put an oxygen atom in there too. When a hydrogen atom crashes into an oxygen atom, they stick together. But wait, when another hydrogen atom hits, it also sticks to the oxygen. What about a third hydrogen atom? No, that’s if for oxygen. It can only make 2 bonds and then it’s done.
Views: 135283 AtomicSchool
Ionic Bond, Covalent Bond, James Bond, so many bonds! What dictates which kind of bond will form? Electronegativity values, of course. Let's go through each type and what they're all about. Subscribe: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveSubscribe [email protected] http://patreon.com/ProfessorDaveExplains http://professordaveexplains.com http://facebook.com/ProfessorDaveExpl... http://twitter.com/DaveExplains General Chemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveGenChem Organic Chemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveOrgChem Biochemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveBiochem Classical Physics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDavePhysics1 Modern Physics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDavePhysics2 Mathematics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveMaths Biology Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveBio American History Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveAmericanHistory
Views: 263766 Professor Dave Explains
water special molecule है..इसे बनाने वाले different elements के बीच की bonding इसे special बनाती है. शायद आपको पता ही होगा कि सभी elements की tendency, अपना octate complete करने की होती हैं. इसकी detailed study के लिए आप हमारा ये video देख सकते हैं! water..एक oxygen और दो hydrogen atoms का combination होता है. oxygen की outer shell में 6 electrons होते हैं..यानी इसे अपना octate complete करने के लिए 2 electrons की जरूरत होती है. वहीँ hydrogen की outer shell में एक electron होता है..और इसे valence shell full करने के लिए एक extra electron की जरूरत होती है! ये दोनों atoms अपना octate complete करने के लिए आपस में electrons की sharing करके covalent bonds बनाते हैं. hydrogen और oxygen के बीच इस तरह की bonding होने से हमें water molecule मिलता है! electrons की sharing से बनने वाले covalent bonds को हम इस तरह straight line से represent कर सकते हैं..लेकिन वास्तव में water molecule को हम इस तरह draw नहीं करते! इसकी actual geometry ये है. water की ऐसी geometry, oxygen के loan pairs के कारण होती है. ये unshared loan paires..bonding pairs को repell करते हैं. जिससे oxygen atoms नीचे की तरफ shift हो जाते हैं. The video is a contextualized and translated version (suitable for Indian audiences) of the original video (linked below). The original license allows the use of this video under CC-BY-NC domain of creative commons community. Hindi Script: Atul kumar Mishra Voiceover: Gopesh Kaushik Editor (Script and video): Team Learn India Learn LIL website: https://www.learnindialearn.com Original Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4mpsZwgCnHM
Views: 637 Learn India Learn
http://www.sciencetutorial4u.com This video explains how to draw covalent molecules and compounds. Contents: 0:08 Introduction 0:39 H2 1:25 HCl 2:23 Cl2 3:18 CH4 4:27 NH3 5:37 H2O 6:52 O2 7:57 N2 Thank you for watching. Please like, subscribe and share this video: https://youtu.be/_v8C1W0ChVM INTRODUCTION 0:08 Covalent bonding happens between non-metals. The electrons are shared between the non-metal atoms. This bonding allow atoms to have full outer shell of electrons. Only the electrons in the outer shell take part in the bonding. The number of electrons in the outer shell can be found out using the group in the periodic table. H2 0:39 Hydrogen is in group 1 so it has one electron in the outer shell. Hydrogen molecules have single bond which means they have two electrons in the overlap. HCl 1:25 Chlorine is in group 7 so it has seven electrons in the outer shell. HCl has single bond so it has two electrons in the overlap. Cl2 2:23 Chlorine is in group 7 so it has seven electrons in the outer shell. Cl2 (Chlorine molecule) has single bond so it has two electrons in the overlap. CH4 3:18 Carbon is in group 4 so it has four electrons in the outer shell. Methane has four single bonds. NH3 4:27 Nitrogen is found in group 5 so it has 5 electrons in the outer-shell. The Nitrogen atom is surrounded by three Hydrogen atoms, each providing one electron in the sharing (overlap). So Ammonia has 3 single bonds. H2O 5:37 Oxygen is found in group 6 so it has 6 electrons in the outer shell. Water has 2 single bonds. O2 6:52 Oxygen molecules have double bonds. Oxygen atom is found in group 6 so it has 6 electron in the outer shell. Therefore, in the overlap there are 2 pairs of electrons (which is 4 electrons in the overlap). This leads O2 molecules to have one double bond. N2 7:57 Nitrogen molecules have triple bonds. Nitrogen is found in group 5 so it has 5 electrons in the outer-shell. In the overlap, there are 3 pairs of electrons which are 6 electrons in the overlap. This causes Nitrogen molecules to have one triple bond. How to draw Ionic Bonds Teaching Video: https://youtu.be/ek-AN5K3AlI Ionic and Covalent bonds Teaching video: https://youtu.be/wQ3NJUKKcTU How to draw electron shell Teaching video: https://youtu.be/vuVNkQwSggo
Views: 66501 sciencetutorial4u
Carbon dioxide is a product of one of the most important chemical reactions in the world: combustion. Combustion is how a lot of people in the world heat their homes and power their cars. It also unfortunately contributes to the greenhouse effect and global warming. The carbon dioxide molecule is formed from one carbon atom and two oxygens. As an element, carbon only has 4 outer shell electrons and oxygen 6. Double covalent bonds form between the atoms, where two electrons from each atom are shared making 4 bonding electrons in total. The two groups of bonding electrons in carbon dioxide repel each other and this keeps the oxygen atoms as far away from each other as possible. Carbon dioxide is less reactive than water because it has two bonds with each oxygen. This means you need a lot more energy to break the atoms apart. Carbon dioxide's strong double bonds make it very stable and so whenever there are stray carbon and oxygen atoms flying about, they love to get together and form carbon dioxide. Like water, the bonds in carbon dioxide are POLAR COVALENT, making the carbon atom delta positive and the oxygens delta negative. Although, unlike water, carbon dioxide is not a polar molecule overall. SUBSCRIBE to the FuseSchool YouTube channel for many more educational videos. Our teachers and animators come together to make fun & easy-to-understand videos in Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Maths & ICT. VISIT us at www.fuseschool.org, where all of our videos are carefully organised into topics and specific orders, and to see what else we have on offer. Comment, like and share with other learners. You can both ask and answer questions, and teachers will get back to you. These videos can be used in a flipped classroom model or as a revision aid. Find all of our Chemistry videos here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cRnpKjHpFyg&list=PLW0gavSzhMlReKGMVfUt6YuNQsO0bqSMV Find all of our Biology videos here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tjkHzEVcyrE&list=PLW0gavSzhMlQYSpKryVcEr3ERup5SxHl0 Find all of our Maths videos here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hJq_cdz_L00&list=PLW0gavSzhMlTyWKCgW1616v3fIywogoZQ Twitter: https://twitter.com/fuseSchool Access a deeper Learning Experience in the FuseSchool platform and app: www.fuseschool.org Follow us: http://www.youtube.com/fuseschool Friend us: http://www.facebook.com/fuseschool This Open Educational Resource is free of charge, under a Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC ( View License Deed: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ). You are allowed to download the video for nonprofit, educational use. If you would like to modify the video, please contact us: [email protected]
Views: 17549 FuseSchool - Global Education
Chemistry: What is a Covalent Bond? (Polar and Nonpolar) Covalent bonds are one of the 3 main types of intramolecular forces, along with ionic bonds and metallic bonds. Covalent bonds are the result of atoms sharing their valence electrons. Covalent bonds can be polar or nonpolar, depending on the electronegativies of the atoms involved in the bond. We show five examples of covalent bonds using Lewis dot structure notation: HF, CO2, H2, H2O and CCl4. You can click on the links below to jump to sections in the lesson: 0:28 Definition of a Covalent Bond 0:42 Example 1: HF (single covalent bond) 1:23 Example 2: CO2 (double covalent bond) 2:09 Nonpolar covalent bonds 2:20 Example 3: H2 2:43 Polar covalent bonds 2:48 Example 4: H2O 3:58 Example 5: CCl4 4:39 Pauling Bond Polarity Scale (Linus Pauling) 5:15 Do covalent bonds break apart in water? (electrolytes) Click to watch our video about ionic bonds: http://bit.ly/1UWsJRL Click to see our video about metallic bonds: http://bit.ly/1UoASiZ And here's our video comparing ionic and covalent bonds: http://bit.ly/1Nz4Kpy Intermolecular Forces: http://bit.ly/2xAnoMt ///////////////////////// Essential Chemistry Lessons help all year long: What is a Mole? Avogadro's Number: http://bit.ly/2laJh0S Molar Mass: http://bit.ly/2pNfg8L Scientific Notation: http://bit.ly/2cv6yTw Significant Figures: http://bit.ly/2b1g3aJ Unit Conversion 1: http://bit.ly/1YGOQgw Unit Conversion 2: http://bit.ly/1RGbwZ1 Periodic Table: http://bit.ly/2gmSWfe ///////////////////////// Our Periodic Table app is FREE in the Google Play store! http://goo.gl/yg9mAF Don't miss our other chemistry videos: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aQw9G... Please Subscribe so you'll hear about our newest videos! http://bit.ly/1ixuu9W If you found this video helpful, please give it a "thumbs up" and share it with your friends! ///////////////////////// To support more videos from Socratica, visit Socratica Patreon https://www.patreon.com/socratica http://bit.ly/29gJAyg Socratica Paypal https://www.paypal.me/socratica We also accept Bitcoin! :) Our address is: 1EttYyGwJmpy9bLY2UcmEqMJuBfaZ1HdG9 ///////////////////////// We recommend the following books: Brown and LeMay Chemistry: The Central Science 13th edition: http://amzn.to/2n5SXtB 14th edition: http://amzn.to/2mHk79f McGraw/Hill Chemistry by Chang & Goldsby http://amzn.to/2mO2khf Uncle Tungsten: Memories of a Chemical Boyhood by Oliver Sacks http://amzn.to/2nlaJp0 Napoleon's Buttons: How 17 Molecules Changed History http://amzn.to/2lJZzO3 ///////////////////////// Written and Produced by Kimberly Hatch Harrison About our instructor: Kimberly Hatch Harrison received degrees in Biology and English Literature from Caltech before working in pharmaceuticals research, developing drugs for autoimmune disorders. She then continued her studies in Molecular Biology (focusing on Immunology and Neurobiology) at Princeton University, where she began teaching as a graduate student. Her success in teaching convinced her to leave the glamorous world of biology research and turn to teaching full-time. Kimberly taught AP Biology and Chemistry at an exclusive prep school for eight years. She is now the head writer and producer of Socratica Studios.
Views: 178656 Socratica
Follow us at: https://plus.google.com/+tutorvista/ Check us out at http://chemistry.tutorvista.com/organic-chemistry/polar-covalent-bond.html Polar Covalent Bond The polar covalent bond, called a polar bond for short, is a variation on the standard covalent bond. It is defined by a difference in electronegativity values of 0.4 or greater, the meaning of which shall be made clear below. All covalent bonds are polar to some extent unless the bond is between two atoms of the same element. It is best to start with a review of the standard covalent bond. This is the sharing of electrons between two elements in order to have 8 electrons in the outer shell. The only exception to this is Hydrogen, which is stable with 2 electrons in its outer shell. The structure of each element gives it a different electronegativity value. This value is effectively the strength of the pull of that atom's nucleus on the electrons around it. The higher the value the greater the pull. A covalent bond is electrons moving around two atoms; they are being shared. It is the difference between the electronegativity values that determines which atom gets the larger share of the electron's time. If the electrons spend more of their time around one atom out of the pair then that region will have more negative charge than the other atom. Carbon to Carbon Bond The first example is the standard Carbon to Carbon bond such as occurs in the alkane molecules. We are just considering the bond that these two atoms share without regard for any other bonds that this pair of atoms may be involved in. First we can draw the two atoms as shown below. The pair of electrons that form the bond are drawn between them. The values written below the atoms are from the electronegativities table. The difference is calculated which in this case is zero. A polar covalent bond occurs every time Hydrogen bonds with Nitrogen, Oxygen or Fluorine as these are the three elements with the highest electronegativity values. They all have a difference of 0.9 or greater with Hydrogen. These bonds are called polar because of the different charges. These act like magnets and so polar molecules are pulled toward each other, with opposite charges attracting. The polar covalent bond is commonplace. Water is a liquid at room temperature because of these bonds. Ammonia (NH3) dissolves readily in water because of these bonds. This model even explains why water expands as it freezes. A polar covalent bond involving Hydrogen with any of the three most electronegative elements of Nitrogen, Oxygen and Fluorine is especially strong and is called a Hydrogen bond. Please like our facebook page http://www.facebook.com/tutorvista
Views: 53833 TutorVista
Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney Physics & Physical Sciences playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL_hX5wLdhf_JKIMNk88rKCkhpK73_qmHY Molecular Physics, Hydrogen Bond: Why does water expand when frozen, and have high surface tension? It is due to the electrostatic hydrogen bond, as explained in this film. Originally a public domain film, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_bond Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) atom which is bound to a more electronegative atom or group, such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F)—the hydrogen bond donor—and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons—the hydrogen bond acceptor. Hydrogen bonds can be intermolecular (occurring between separate molecules) or intramolecular (occurring among parts of the same molecule). Depending on the nature of the donor and acceptor atoms which constitute the bond, their geometry, and environment, the energy of a hydrogen bond can vary between 1 and 40 kcal/mol. This makes them somewhat stronger than a van der Waals interaction, and weaker than fully covalent or ionic bonds. This type of bond can occur in inorganic molecules such as water and in organic molecules like DNA and proteins. Intermolecular hydrogen bonding is responsible for the high boiling point of water (100 °C) compared to the other group 16 hydrides that have much weaker hydrogen bonds. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding is partly responsible for the secondary and tertiary structures of proteins and nucleic acids. It also plays an important role in the structure of polymers, both synthetic and natural... A ubiquitous example of a hydrogen bond is found between water molecules. In a discrete water molecule, there are two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. Two molecules of water can form a hydrogen bond between them that is to say oxygen-hydrogen bonding; the simplest case, when only two molecules are present, is called the water dimer and is often used as a model system. When more molecules are present, as is the case with liquid water, more bonds are possible because the oxygen of one water molecule has two lone pairs of electrons, each of which can form a hydrogen bond with a hydrogen on another water molecule. This can repeat such that every water molecule is H-bonded with up to four other molecules, as shown in the figure (two through its two lone pairs, and two through its two hydrogen atoms). Hydrogen bonding strongly affects the crystal structure of ice, helping to create an open hexagonal lattice. The density of ice is less than the density of water at the same temperature; thus, the solid phase of water floats on the liquid, unlike most other substances. Liquid water's high boiling point is due to the high number of hydrogen bonds each molecule can form, relative to its low molecular mass. Owing to the difficulty of breaking these bonds, water has a very high boiling point, melting point, and viscosity compared to otherwise similar liquids... The number of hydrogen bonds formed by a molecule of liquid water fluctuates with time and temperature... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water#Polarity_and_hydrogen_bonding Since the water molecule is not linear and the oxygen atom has a higher electronegativity than hydrogen atoms, it is a polar molecule, with an electrical dipole moment: the oxygen atom carries a slight negative charge, whereas the hydrogen atoms are slightly positive... Because of its polarity, a molecule of water in the liquid or solid state can form up to four hydrogen bonds with neighboring molecules. These bonds are the cause of water's high surface tension and capillary forces. The capillary action refers to the tendency of water to move up a narrow tube against the force of gravity. This property is relied upon by all vascular plants, such as trees. The hydrogen bonds are also the reason why the melting and boiling points of water are much higher than those of other analogous compounds like hydrogen sulfide (H 2S). They also explain its exceptionally high specific heat capacity (about 4.2 J/g/K), heat of fusion (about 333 J/g), heat of vaporization (2257 J/g), and thermal conductivity (between 0.561 and 0.679 W/m/K). These properties make water more effective at moderating Earth's climate, by storing heat and transporting it between the oceans and the atmosphere...
Views: 4507 Jeff Quitney
Learn about Water, Methane, Ammonia, Hydrogen Fluoride & Ethanol - Covalent Bonding as part of WELS (Waterpedia Environmental Learning Series) SUBSCRIBE to the Waterpedia YouTube channel for new WELS (Waterpedia Environmental Learning Series) video every week. Follow us on: https://www.linkedin.com/company/Waterpedia https://www.facebook.com/Waterpedia https://twitter.com/WaterpediaWiki https://plus.google.com/+WaterpediaWiki Visit https://waterpedia.wiki - a wiki based openly-editable (for all registered users) free-content collaborative environmental encyclopedia project initiated by the people, for the people in the environment and sustainability sector. This video is available under a Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC and free to everyone. Credits to FuseSchool.
Views: 332 Waterpedia
019 - Covalent Bonding In this video Paul Andersen explains how covalent bonds form between atoms that are sharing electrons. Atoms that have the same electronegativity create nonpolar covalent bonds. The bond energy and bond length can be determined by graphing the potential energy versus the distance between atoms. Atoms that share electrons unequally form nonpolar covalent bonds. Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: "Electronegativities of the Elements (data Page)." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, August 10, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Electronegativities_of_the_elements_(data_page)&oldid=565034286. "File:Covalent Bond Hydrogen.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 12, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Covalent_bond_hydrogen.svg. "File:Halit-Kristalle.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 12, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Halit-Kristalle.jpg. "File:Hydrogen-chloride-3D-vdW.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 12, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hydrogen-chloride-3D-vdW.png. "File:Magnesium Crystals.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 12, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Magnesium_crystals.jpg. "File:Methane-3D-space-filling.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 12, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Methane-3D-space-filling.svg. "File:Nitrogen-3D-vdW.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 12, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nitrogen-3D-vdW.png. "File:Oxygen Molecule.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 12, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Oxygen_molecule.png. "File:Periodic Trends.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 12, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Periodic_trends.svg. "File:Periodic Trends.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 12, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Periodic_trends.svg. "File:Sugar 2xmacro.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed August 12, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sugar_2xmacro.jpg.
Views: 193788 Bozeman Science
This video was made in Dr. O's A&P1 class. Make sure you answer & review the questions at the end of the video, and also the following questions: 1.What are valence electrons, and why are they important? 2.A bond between a ___-charged ion and a ____- charged ion is called an ____ bond? 3.Which type of bond is considered the strongest? The weakest? 4.Which bond is important in the DNA structure? 5. Which 2 types of bonds are found in water? 6.Give an example of a covalent, ionic, polar covalent, and hydrogen bond.
Views: 15310 mxplk